University of TehranHuman Geography Research2008-629654220220421Explaining the effect of home-based jobs on social structure from the perspective of villagers with a structural equation modeling approach
(Case study: rural areas of Isfahan province)Explaining the effect of home-based jobs on social structure from the perspective of villagers with a structural equation modeling approach
(Case study: rural areas of Isfahan province)5835978007510.22059/jhgr.2021.314637.1008212FAAhmadHajarianPhD student of Geography and Rural Planning, University of lsfahan, Isfahan, Iran0000-0003-4487-3586AhmadTaghdisiAssociate Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IranHamidBarghiAssociate Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, IranJournal Article20201201Development, which is in various dimensions, including economic, social or cultural, can affect the structures of society and vice versa, social structures. This influence and effectiveness is the reason why planners pay attention to it and its dimensions. Study. One of the manifestations of development is the improvement of employment and the issue of unemployment.<br />Home-based businesses have been very effective in reducing unemployment due to their unique benefits, and the countries that have used them to strengthen these jobs have achieved remarkable positive results. Starting a business with the least initial capital, the possibility of working part-time, the existence of short-term training courses, no need for significant space, etc. are undeniable capabilities that home and family businesses have and require attention Jedi reveals this opportunity <br />Social structure refers to structural features that make it possible to distinguish and distinguish similar actions in different temporal and spatial domains and give them a systematic form. The structure consists of rules and resources that play a role in the reproduction of social systems, ie rules that are formulated in social interaction and determine for social actors how to act socially and achieve goals .<br />Many problems of Isfahan province in the employment sector on the one hand and also considering the unemployment rate of 5.5 percent in rural areas of Isfahan province between 1397 and 1398 on the other hand has caused to get out of this situation to look at home jobs in particular. Be. As a result, it is obvious that any kind of activities related to home-based activities cause economic, social, and cultural changes in rural areas. The creation of this type of business is one of the contemplative consequences of the desired developments. .<br />Due to the importance of the subject, the present study aims to investigate and evaluate the effects of this type of domestic work on the social structure of rural areas of Isfahan province.<br />The present research is applied research in terms of purpose and causal research in nature. The statistical population of the study includes all villagers working in home-based businesses in Isfahan province, which according to the Statistics Center of Iran in November 2016 was 296581 people. Cochran's formula was used to calculate the statistical sample size, based on which the sample size is equal to 384 households were estimated. Then, using probabilistic random sampling method, the questionnaires were distributed among 95 villages of Isfahan province that were randomly selected in 1398. The questionnaire consists of two parts. The first part was related to the personal characteristics of the respondents including gender, age, level of education, occupation, number of households and income. The second part related to the effects of home-based jobs on the social structure of the respondents was used in the form of a five-level Likert scale (very low = 1 to very high = 5). (Hafeznia, 1389: 74) Formal and content validity of the questionnaire And the experts of the University of Isfahan and after making the necessary corrections were approved in several stages. In the present study, Cronbach's alpha method has been used to assess the validity of the measurement tool.<br />Results<br />Findings showed that the statistical population in terms of gender was 16.4% female and 83.6% male. In terms of education, 46.7% of the respondents had literacy, 48.3% had a cycle degree, 4.2% had a diploma and 0.8% had a bachelor's degree. The mean age of the respondents was 47.7 (standard deviation: 9.55) years, the youngest of whom was 20 years old and the oldest of whom was 74 years old. Most of the villagers surveyed in this study are married with a frequency of 91.6% and single at 8.4%. The results of the research show that 32.5% of the respondents stated that they are insured and 67.5% are uninsured.<br />The strength of the relationship between the factor (hidden variable) and the observable variable is indicated by the factor load. The factor load is a value between zero and one. If the factor load is less than 0.3, a weak relationship is considered and ignored. A factor load of between 0.3 and 0.6 is acceptable, and if greater than 0.6 it is highly desirable. It can be seen that all the observed variables had positive and significant regression effect coefficients with their scales and the magnitude of these coefficients is relatively high for all cases, They are meaningful. As can be seen, in this table no significant level is reported for the factor loads or the standard regression coefficients of the five observed variables. This is because these variables are considered as reference variables for social harms, health system, participation and social communication, demographic structure and migration, respectively, so that these variables are hidden without scale and In other words, they should be eliminated without roots and their unit of measurement (Ghasemi, 2010). That is why the initial path diagrams are considered on the arrows related to the paths between these observed variables with the hidden variable corresponding to the values of 1, the AVE criterion represents the average variance shared between each structure with its own indicators. Simply put, AVE (average variance extracted) is used to validate convergence and shows a high correlation between the indices of one structure compared to the correlation of indices of other structures. The value of this coefficient is from zero to one variable that values higher than 0.5 are accepted (Fornell et al., 1981: 50-39). Convergent validity or extracted mean variance (AVE) for social harm index / 766. The health system index was 0.711, the participation and social relations index was 0.799, the population structure index was 0.526 and the migration reduction index was 0.626. Also, the value of structural reliability coefficient or combined reliability (CR) was from zero to Is a variable that values above 0.7 are accepted, which for the social harm index is / 755. The health system index was 0.737, the participation and communication index was 0.802, the population structure index was 0.514 and the migration reduction index was 0.526, which indicates the appropriateness of these subscalesDevelopment, which is in various dimensions, including economic, social or cultural, can affect the structures of society and vice versa, social structures. This influence and effectiveness is the reason why planners pay attention to it and its dimensions. Study. One of the manifestations of development is the improvement of employment and the issue of unemployment.<br />Home-based businesses have been very effective in reducing unemployment due to their unique benefits, and the countries that have used them to strengthen these jobs have achieved remarkable positive results. Starting a business with the least initial capital, the possibility of working part-time, the existence of short-term training courses, no need for significant space, etc. are undeniable capabilities that home and family businesses have and require attention Jedi reveals this opportunity <br />Social structure refers to structural features that make it possible to distinguish and distinguish similar actions in different temporal and spatial domains and give them a systematic form. The structure consists of rules and resources that play a role in the reproduction of social systems, ie rules that are formulated in social interaction and determine for social actors how to act socially and achieve goals .<br />Many problems of Isfahan province in the employment sector on the one hand and also considering the unemployment rate of 5.5 percent in rural areas of Isfahan province between 1397 and 1398 on the other hand has caused to get out of this situation to look at home jobs in particular. Be. As a result, it is obvious that any kind of activities related to home-based activities cause economic, social, and cultural changes in rural areas. The creation of this type of business is one of the contemplative consequences of the desired developments. .<br />Due to the importance of the subject, the present study aims to investigate and evaluate the effects of this type of domestic work on the social structure of rural areas of Isfahan province.<br />The present research is applied research in terms of purpose and causal research in nature. The statistical population of the study includes all villagers working in home-based businesses in Isfahan province, which according to the Statistics Center of Iran in November 2016 was 296581 people. Cochran's formula was used to calculate the statistical sample size, based on which the sample size is equal to 384 households were estimated. Then, using probabilistic random sampling method, the questionnaires were distributed among 95 villages of Isfahan province that were randomly selected in 1398. The questionnaire consists of two parts. The first part was related to the personal characteristics of the respondents including gender, age, level of education, occupation, number of households and income. The second part related to the effects of home-based jobs on the social structure of the respondents was used in the form of a five-level Likert scale (very low = 1 to very high = 5). (Hafeznia, 1389: 74) Formal and content validity of the questionnaire And the experts of the University of Isfahan and after making the necessary corrections were approved in several stages. In the present study, Cronbach's alpha method has been used to assess the validity of the measurement tool.<br />Results<br />Findings showed that the statistical population in terms of gender was 16.4% female and 83.6% male. In terms of education, 46.7% of the respondents had literacy, 48.3% had a cycle degree, 4.2% had a diploma and 0.8% had a bachelor's degree. The mean age of the respondents was 47.7 (standard deviation: 9.55) years, the youngest of whom was 20 years old and the oldest of whom was 74 years old. Most of the villagers surveyed in this study are married with a frequency of 91.6% and single at 8.4%. The results of the research show that 32.5% of the respondents stated that they are insured and 67.5% are uninsured.<br />The strength of the relationship between the factor (hidden variable) and the observable variable is indicated by the factor load. The factor load is a value between zero and one. If the factor load is less than 0.3, a weak relationship is considered and ignored. A factor load of between 0.3 and 0.6 is acceptable, and if greater than 0.6 it is highly desirable. It can be seen that all the observed variables had positive and significant regression effect coefficients with their scales and the magnitude of these coefficients is relatively high for all cases, They are meaningful. As can be seen, in this table no significant level is reported for the factor loads or the standard regression coefficients of the five observed variables. This is because these variables are considered as reference variables for social harms, health system, participation and social communication, demographic structure and migration, respectively, so that these variables are hidden without scale and In other words, they should be eliminated without roots and their unit of measurement (Ghasemi, 2010). That is why the initial path diagrams are considered on the arrows related to the paths between these observed variables with the hidden variable corresponding to the values of 1, the AVE criterion represents the average variance shared between each structure with its own indicators. Simply put, AVE (average variance extracted) is used to validate convergence and shows a high correlation between the indices of one structure compared to the correlation of indices of other structures. The value of this coefficient is from zero to one variable that values higher than 0.5 are accepted (Fornell et al., 1981: 50-39). Convergent validity or extracted mean variance (AVE) for social harm index / 766. The health system index was 0.711, the participation and social relations index was 0.799, the population structure index was 0.526 and the migration reduction index was 0.626. Also, the value of structural reliability coefficient or combined reliability (CR) was from zero to Is a variable that values above 0.7 are accepted, which for the social harm index is / 755. The health system index was 0.737, the participation and communication index was 0.802, the population structure index was 0.514 and the migration reduction index was 0.526, which indicates the appropriateness of these subscaleshttps://jhgr.ut.ac.ir/article_80075_cc42675a34c159e32bd4c111027948b1.pdf