عنوان مقاله [English]
Reduction in the urban life quality due to the formation and emergence of complicated problems in various economic, social, environmental, physical and institutional dimensions and the disability of the traditional and centralized system of cities’ management and administration has made the importance of using a good urban governance pattern necessary with the aim of enhancing the livability. Bushehr City, the Bushehr Province’s capital is facing various problems just like the other cities in the country that has caused the urban management to face challenges in desirable administration of the city. Removing the urban issues and improving the quality of life and enhancing the level of habitability, despite the current centralized and traditional patterns of city affairs’ administration are not realizable without developing the appropriate programs and increasing the role of urban management and participation. One of the new ways in the urban management system is the good urban governance pattern which is posed by the United Nations to increase the sustainability and reduce the poverty in developing countries. Therefore, the main objective of the study is to investigate the effective factors of good urban governance on improving the livability of Bushehr City to see which good urban governance indicators have the greatest impact on the improvement of the livability of Bushehr City.
The current research is applied in terms of purpose and is descriptive-survey methodologically. Research indicators have been developed using library studies and past research study. In this research, (participation, justice, agreement and consensus-orientation, efficiency and effectiveness, legality, transparency, taking the responsibility and accountability) indicators have been used along with 40 questions. The statistical population consisted of 40 university professors, managers and experts familiar with the research subject in Bushehr City selected using targeted sampling. Data analysis in this study has been carried out using the structural equations analysis model as well as verification factor analysis, which is a subset of structural equations analysis using Lisrel software.
Results and discussion
In the study of the effect of good urban governance indexes on urban livability of Bushehr City, one can say that the highest standard coefficient belongs to transparency index (0.90), and then the responsibility-taking indicators (0.89), justice (0.82), accountability (0.69), efficiency and effectiveness (0.67), participation (0.63), legality (0.60) and the lowest ranking accrues to agreement and efficiency index (0.58). Therefore, from the viewpoint of university professors, managers and urban experts in Bushehr, most of the good urban governance indicators are effective in enhancing the urban livability in Bushehr. Efforts to strengthen the good urban governance indicators in Bushehr lead to increasing the urban livability. Also, the experts believe that enhancing the transparency in Bushehr's urban management will have the highest role on Bushehr's urban livability.
Achieving a high-livability city requires the active presence and participation of the citizens through the decentralization of the responsibilities and delegation of authorities, qualifications and authority to civil entities, private sector and local people.
By applying the transparency principle, people make sure that they will be ensured of safety and security and preservation of the public interests, and they will engage to play their participative role with more surety and seriousness. Administrative health (bribery and corruption control), continuous and transparent information of urban organizations on annual goals, programs, plans, projects, continuous assessment and evaluation of urban management performance, transparent disclosure of contracts and annual income- expense by urban organizations and citizens' free access in particular elites to information and prevention of information rente in urban organizations are among the most important factors affecting transparency in urban management.
The responsibility taking of the organizations and institutions in relation to the tasks assigned and the authorities’ accountability and decision makers for the citizens and making the people responsible and granting them the right to interfere in the affairs can guarantee a beautiful, livable and sustainable city. In this context, increasing the public awareness about the protection of natural resources and the environment, making the neighborhood beautiful using indigenous symbols and urban identity-maker signs, culture building and increasing the citizens’ sensitivity to abide by the promises made by the authorities are among the influential factors of this index in improving citizens' participation, environmental sustainability and perspectives.
Creation of equal opportunities for citizens to benefit from the resources, facilities and urban spaces, respect for gender equity, citizens’ fair access to diverse employment opportunities, having adequate housing ownership and appropriate distribution of uses are among the most important factors related to the justice index, which have a significant impact on livability enhancement of Bushehr City and cause the public education, recreations and breaks, health and wellness and continuity and location belongings to improve, as well as increased income and employment, transportation and housing quality.
Accountability can be realized by continuously describing the programs and taken and underway actions, easy access to urban managers and citizens’ monitoring empowerment, too. More efficiency and effectiveness guarantees investment in urban environments and helps realization of democratic processes and empowerment in order to provide the ground for the optimal use of resources, services and facilities while meeting the needs. In this regard, standards observance in the provision of urban services, the existence of sustainable income sources, the existence of native, creative and expert managers, and paying attention to meritocracy and increased skills and entrepreneurship will be among the important and effective actions.
Bushehr urban management should provide the basis with the citizens’ increasing intervention and participation in policy-making, decision-making, monitoring and implementation areas by taking the necessary measures. The measures such as setting up a system for presenting plans and programs, district-orientation and delegation of affairs authority to local councils, empowering the popular organizations and NGOs with the aim of strengthening and expanding the creativity, entrepreneurship and self-reliance in citizens, citizenship training and promotion of participatory culture, depoliticize of the City Council and urban management, simplification of the processes and legal and institutional mechanisms, etc. can play an effective role in improving the Bushehr livability.