1 دانشجوی دکترای علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه اصفهان
2 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
From beginning of 20th century in which crude oil gained gradually its position as the most significant source for maintaining energy in the world, the rate of resources and status of demand and supply for possessors of such resources which are mainly producers and exporting countries and for importing and consuming of such type of energy became increasingly importance.
Such situation emanates from the limitation of gas and oil also lucks of balance in geographical spreading's of these resources and their consuming market.
Unbalanced distribution of natural gas and oil in various geographical areas and countries where are located in those areas, led to this reality that some of areas in those countries turned in to reserve poles of oil and gas and in contrast, some areas and countries located in those areas became lack of sufficient energy reserves or even some of them became totally without having such reserves.
The said restrictions along with further and high consumption of industrial as well as more advanced countries and the impacts of this strategic commodity on the economic wheels of those countries, and less consumption of less developed as well as developing countries in which themselves are mainly possessors of such crude materials( and even are the most significant source of their incomes), led to escalation the importance of rate and venue of such energy reserves and the situation of their supply and demand plus their security in global market.
Given the unfavorable dispersion of gas and oil resources and sometimes the remoteness from main consuming centers, along with problems of easy access of consumers and producers to resources and markets, this situation led to shaping the conception among consumers for achieving the confident sources of energy and producers for confident market of demand.
Amongst those countries, as a country which possesses the largest resources of oil and gas in the world, Iran is not exemption, and as other producers seeks the confident and long term market for energy products in line with its national interests.
For Iran, among great importers of global oil and gas, E.U. countries with first rank in terms of world crude oil and major demanders of natural gas, attach great importance.
In contrast, E.U. seeks to diversifying its energy importing market for lowering the pressure and influence of Russia and its energy market. And Iran with possessing the suitable resources and situation is the major option ahead of those countries.
What has happened till now is less than existing capacities and even the energy ties of both sides at first decade of 21th century has witnessed downward trend because of political disputes, to such an extent that many of Iranian potential opportunities in energy geopolitics gained by regional rivals of Iran and as a result led to continuation energy dependency of Europe to Russia.
The methodology of current paper is descriptive type and is based on reason and analysis.In this research, through access to different scientific and research centers, and by using fish samplingas well as by exploiting Delphic methodology, the required data concerning the subject were gathered.
Through describing theoretical foundations related to research including energy security and energy geopolitics expressing the necessary finding such as Iranian energy geopolitics as well as the status of energy security in E.U, the position of Iran in the energy security of E.U. has been discussed, which the ground for logical studying and reviewing the geopolitics relation of Iran energy and energy security of E.U. has been prepared
Results and Discussion
Today the energy security is the most important challenge for big economies of world like E.U. and among various issues which exist in Europe policy and economy realm, it seems that energy and its different dimensions are at top agenda of the states of this region.
One of the most important objectives which are followed within context of green chart and other energy strategies of Europe is the issue of diversification of fundamentals of imports including energy types and transformation lines.
Given to the negative record of Russia in using energy as a political weapon, E.U. tries to convince exporting countries of energy and to establish new lines for transferring with aim at realizing this objective.
The rest most important options for this union are fields of Caspian sea, North Africa and the Middle East.
Among them, the regional capacities of Iran, attach great importance the geopolitics capabilities of Iranian energy for E.U. are double.
It means that both it has rich resources and valuable geographical situation for transit energy resources of other field to Europe.
Pressing need of Europeans to natural gas and lack of confident able fossil resources, led many western countries toward Iran.
This issue has a particular sensitivity for E.U. which tries to exert pressure on Iran with aim at stopping Iranian nuclear programs.
Now, the biggest obstacle on the way of Iranian gas for sale in Europe market, is Iranian nuclear programs. Iranian nuclear programs and E.U’s stand on this issue, determine the time of Iranian gas entrance to E.U. soil.
A short look at the future of natural gas and status of big producers of this production in near future, displays a narrow dilemma in which Europeans many entangled in it.
Although the gas of Arabian countries of Persian Golf region North Africa and central Asia countries is under way of Europe market, providing required gas of E.U. in future decades without Iranian gas would be impossible
While aligning with the U.S., the E.U. by bringing excuses such as Iranian efforts to access nuclear weapons, implemented widespread economic sometimes against Iran. Such sanctions include different dimensions such as investment in Iranian gas and oil industries.
Actually these sanctions made obstacles in the way of investments of foreign countries and companies in high and low levels of Iranian gas and oil industries.
Continuation of such policy in long term while prevents.
Increase of production in Iran, would reduce current production too.
Reduction of oil and gas production, while reducing the incomes of sale and as a result economic pressure on Iran, would bring reduction of energy production and increasing the price for its applicants including E.U. member countries.
The said status, in addition to lack of active energy diplomacy in concerned establishments, depends on the typo of Iranian policy interactions and global system, particularly western world and at its top the United States of existing countering political approach between sides, led to missing big opportunities.
The geopolitics of Iranian energy has such capability that with increasing the geopolitics weight of the country in global system, it could be at the service of interest and national security of the country.Butpolitical differencesbetween Iran andsomeinfluentialpowersintheworld system which is rooted from UnilaterallyPolicies and unreasonable of Western powers and adopting Contrasting national security approaches which made obstacles in the way ofIranachieving toitsgeopoliticcapacity,Especiallyintheenergy.
Thus, for achieving the useful capabilities of Iranian energy, given the said statements in this research and subjective perceptions, some proposals are introduced as follows:
1. Adoption growth-based national security approach with interactive view on global system.
2. Formulation a comprehensive strategy of cohesive energy security and adoption energy diplomacy aligning it.