عنوان مقاله [English]
The effect of Tamarchin frontier market on physical development of Piranshahr over 2006-2014
Common frontier markets are considered as the major factors that transform frontier cities and are booming the economy of these regions. Therefore, frontier markets play an essential role in developing the economy, promoting peace and stability, increasing security, and improving infrastructure and services in these regions. Activation of these markets leads to greater economic growth for frontier cities, i.e. a trend that results in economic development and urban growth. There is no doubt that development of economic activities leads to an increase in employment and to a large extent causes population and urbanization growth. On the other hand, there is a direct correlation between increasing growth of urbanization and physical development of cities. In other words, indiscriminate and unsustainable development of cities leads to growth of suburbs, destruction of urban green areas, and rising demand for urban land. Therefore, it can be stated that the economy of a city is an effective factor in growth of urban lands and physical development.
Activation of Tamarchin frontier market resulted in a fundamental change in the economy of Piranshahr. And employment and the revenues from Tamarchin boundary and domestic market transformed the economy of the town. Therefore, in recent years high level of employment in Piranshahr has made it one of the population absorbers in the area, a fact indicated by population changes. Due to increasing need of the immigrants to accommodation and shelter and disorganized constructions along with real estate activities, urban development has been pushed toward Northeast, East, South, and Southeast where there is no physical development limit. This physical development has swallowed up the agricultural lands and "Shin Abad" village has been affected by this development and integrated into the town. On the other hand, due to this physical development of the town toward flat and fertile plains, land cover has been changed and agricultural lands have been destroyed.
In this regard, the present study is aimed at investigating the effect of Tamarchin frontier market growth on immigration to Piranshahr and its physical development whereby the main hypothesis of the study – development of Tamarching frontier market has caused immigration to Piranshahr and its physical development to increase – can be answered.
In terms the aim, the present study is an applied one and in terms of the method and nature it is descriptive-analytical. According to the title of the study, required data have been collected through library and documentation procedures, survey techniques, and satellite images and were analyzed through bi-variate logistic regression and Holden models and SPSS. The procedures are as follow:
Survey techniques are utilized in order to evaluate opinion of Piranshahr residents on the effect of Tamarchin frontier market on physical development of the town. The sample size has been determined through Cochran formula to be 384 individuals. Collected data have been analyzed through bi-variate logistic regression and Holdern models using SPSS. Moreover, in order to identify the pattern of physical development of the town, periodical land cover maps retrieved from Landsat satellite, satellite images of ETM+TM (2006 and 2014) were analyzed using IDRISI software. In addition, Holdern model has been used in order to explain the issue more and identify this issue that development of Piranshahr has been due to population increase or its density pattern.
Discussion of the study findings begins with a short review of population changes of Piranshahr and the performance of Tamarchin frontier market so that an overview of the market is achieved. Then, in order to determine the effects of the development of Tamarchin frontier market on population absorption of the town, collected data retrieved from Piranshahr residents have been utilized to see whether the market development has affected the population absorption and physical development of the town or not. In so doing, bi-variate logistic regression model in SPSS has been applied.
In the next phase, the pattern of physical development of the town has been identified through satellite images and Holdern urban development model. This model has also been utilized to determine the proportion of the town development and its population.
By developing the economy of frontier cities, frontier markets create a high level of employment in these regions, which results in a large population to be absorbed in order to find appropriate jobs and gain higher income. It is vivid that as population absorption increases, demand for urban land rises. Therefore, increasing growth of urbanization is directly correlated with physical development of cities. In other words, indiscriminate and unsustainable development of cities leads to growth of suburbs, encroachment on the lands around the city, destruction of urban green areas, and rising demand for urban land. Therefore, it can be stated that the economy of a city and its growth are effective factors in land and physical development of the city.
In this regard, the present study is aimed at investigating the effect of Tamarchin frontier market growth on immigration to Piranshahr and its physical development. The results of integrating data collected from surveying and logistic regression model in SPSS have presented important information on the pattern and trend of land cover change and proved the fact that Tamarchin frontier market and the resulted economic growth in recent years have created a high level of employment which is an essential factor in immigration to Piranshahr and in fact "its physical development". This rapid urban development has cause Shin Abad village to get integrated in Piranshahr. Moreover, the results gained from Holdern model, further explaining the issue, have indicated that development of Piranshahr is mostly caused by population increase (- 0.997) rather than by the patterns of urban development. Although Shin Abad has integrated into Piranshahr and 190 Acres has been added to the town during 2005-2014, 118 Acres of this area (62% of the total area added to the town) have been unofficial settlement. However, the town's development has not been comprehensive and the town has not experienced spiral development.
Keywords: Physical Development, Tamarchin Border Market, Piranshahr city.