عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
There are many challenges ahead for country municipalities due to lack of proper definition of their role in the structure of urban management. The private sector and civil society are two essential element in achieving good governance that municipalities Lack of compliance that the municipality does not have a good cooperation with them. This issue has led to failure of municipalities in terms of management. This problem prevails in most cities of the country. After more than 90 years from the municipal activities (Baladieh) and city council of Sanandaj (Sena), todays the city seen a lot of problems In terms of urban management. One of the main factors that causing enormous problems in Sanandaj is spread a kind of theory and practice gap between the city administration and the private sector and civil society. This research is based on the assumption that the main cause of management problems in Sanandaj is weakness in the city in terms of urban good governance components (index). Indeed, this study sought to determine the parameters of good governance is a city in Sanandaj to thereby provide a clear understanding of Status index of urban governance in Sanandaj. This study in contrast to most previous research, considered a full list of indexes of urban good governance. On the other hand, this study sought to assess the situation of the indices for different regions because it want to make clear that is how was the urban management of Sanandaj in different areas. Eventually, in case of weaknesses of each of these indicators in Sanandaj to provide practical solutions to them.
The aim of the research Selection is define that what tools and ways is necessary to examine the matter. Research method depends on the purpose and nature of its research and executive facilities. According to the object and purpose of the research, descriptive - analytical was used. In order to gain theoretical insight and literature review Style library was used by using books and articles and Statutes and refer to the online information. To obtain field information questionnaire tool with questions in Likert with items 5 option was used. The questionnaire, have been distributed in the community of citizens of Sanandaj city including 19 connected zone and 4 separated urban zone. Questionnaires distributed among citizens by utilizing the simple random distribution method. The questionnaire also included five kind of options: too much 5, much 4, medium3, low 2 and very low 1 score. Eventually as well as for data analysis statistical analysis software was used. Statistical population of the research is all the inhabitants of the city of Sanandaj, which according statistics results in 1390 that it had total of 373,987 people. Cochran formula is used to determine the sample size. The sample size was 384 and the method of their choice as well as stratified sampling.
Results and discussion
To keep track of desired goals in this study, have been identified and evaluated 8 index among the good governance indexes that proposed by the United Nations. These indicators include: transparency, efficiency and effectiveness, social justice, legitimacy, accountability, responsibility and being responsive, participatory and consensus-oriented. The T-test was used in order to evaluate the general performance of urban management. In this test, the theoretical values of the index compared with the mean values of each indicator and significant and non-significant of each test was conducted. Indeed, the purpose of this test compare the situation of indexes of urban good governance. The results reflect the poor performance of urban management in Sanandaj based on every 8 reviewed Indexes of the pattern of urban good governance. But it should also be considered that urban management performance in 8 indicators reviewed almost were at the same level. In the case of the assumption that there are differences between urban good governance indexes in different areas of the city of Sanandaj, According to test significant at 95% confidence H0 assumption is verified. This means that there is significant differences between different areas of the city in terms of urban good governance indices. According to the results of Tukey test, there is many differences among the urban good governance indexes in Sanandaj city. Four urban zone separated around the city of Sanandaj had the weakest status that during the last two years have been added to the law limit of the city. Accordingly, the weakest condition respectively realted to Naysr, Nanaleh, Grizeh and the Hassan Abad zone. These four zone which are considered generally as marginalized areas of the city have a very poor physical and spatial conditions. As a result, people of the areas know Sanandaj urban management as the main cause of the backwardness of the area. On the other hand, these areas with a lack of commitment to the urban rules and regulations arrangements create the tension conditions among citizens and municipalities. On the other hand four districts of urban areas in Sanandaj in terms of urban good governance indicators had very favorable status. These areas are the zone 22, zone 20, zone 18 and zone 19.
By studying the map of Tukey test in GIS software cleared important results in relation to the spatial analysis of urban good governance in the City of Sanandaj. This means that a certain space pattern Dominated on space of urban management of Sanandaj city. Accordingly, each attached districts surrounding of the city of Sanandaj (Naysr, Nanaleh, Grizeh and Hassan Abad Regions) have horrendous conditions. Northern areas (districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) of Sanandaj city compared to other inside areas have a bad situation. Western areas (zones 8, 9, 10 and 11) had moderate situation of urban management of the city based on the pattern of urban good governance. The southern areas are in a state of very good compared to other areas.