عنوان مقاله [English]
Assessment of social capital among the rangeland utilizes with network analysis approach (Case Study: the southern part of Gorgan)
One of the most important elements to achieve real participation in today's complex societies, the level of social capital in society that with indicators such as the norms, rules, obligations and mutual trust is measured. Social capital is a set of institutions, rules, practices, social customs and traditions and rules of conduct in a society that social relations between people form a community and the rate of participation in public life and trust factor between them is expressed. An important part of people's participation and villagers in the country, management of natural resources is particularly rangeland. In most developing countries in the process of participatory management of natural resources such as rangeland generally faced with two types of actor or stakeholder that on the one hand of collaborative management, stakeholders and related government agencies and are on the other side of rangeland utilizes. One of the ideas that could help to examine the relationships between actors in the field of natural resources, network analysis. Social network, or the main source of social capital, a combination of actors and relations between them. The concept of network and network analysis technologies are the tools to imagine vision and analyze the complete nature of the relations involved in this realm. These tools provide the method to simplify and make these relations consistent with one another in order to achieve effective objectives. This approach can be studied on the subject of social capital have been studied and analyzed. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the state of social capital in the pasture with an emphasis on relationships of trust And participation and social analysis and identification of powers between local stakeholders and key actors in summer rangeland south of Gorgan And to operate and success of collaborative management in the region have been studied.
For this purpose, a network analysis method was used because of the importance and role of social relations and social conflicts. Analytical study is that the survey was conducted. Bipartite and numerical study documents that the evidence gathered through library research literature was discussed. The part number that includes a field survey instrument, data collection, questionnaire. Statistical Society, owners of rangeland utilizes of 14 subjects who were administered a questionnaire matrix to determine the relationships between them. Also the theory and network analysis model and using Ucinet software and Density tests, degrees, reciprocity, transferability, E-I, etc. to analyze data from a variety of graphs to show the relationship has benefited.
Results and discussion
The first indicator that specifies that there should be links to the links, is density. The index is a number between zero and one or 100. Basically, this indicator is a sign of solidarity, that is, what is more, solidarity among members more. The index of social capital in the study for trust 0.4231 or 42.31% (from 182 links may be realized 77 links) and for participation 0.2692 or 26.92%. Reciprocity index which the number of links that mutual reciprocity and there, compared to the number that should be there, The trust between the rangeland utilizes studied 0.50 or 50% and for participation 0.44 or 44% this extent, operators of mutual and reciprocal trust and cooperation with each other. Transitivity index value in relation to other rangeland utilizes in the study area for trust is 59.67% and for participation 68.66%. Namely the possibility of communicating with each third party that looks fairly decent amount.
Today, in order to achieve successful management of natural resources, especially in pastures, increase social capital operators is essential. Social capital and facilitate collective action for the improvement of the conditions necessary for the development of social cohesion in society. Therefore, in this study to measure social capital in rangeland utilizes with network analysis approach in the southern part of Gorgan. Trust and social participation of important aspects in terms of social capital that increase both in the network of relationships between people, leading to increased social capital and social cohesion will ultimately increase. In this study the relationships between stakeholders, based on partnerships of trust and social ties has been analyzed. The social capital among local stakeholders by measuring parameters such as density, reciprocity and Transitivity, geodesic distance, E-I, degree, Betweenness Centrality, Closeness Centrality, Eigenvector Centrality are assessed. Based on the results obtained in the rangeland utilizes, the density of trust and participation in the optimal range and increasing the density of people in the development of trust, participation, solidarity and social capital at the level of individuals and subgroups. In general, high levels of trust and participation among stakeholders will cause increased density and social cohesion and Social capital network of local stakeholders realized more quickly. Therefore, the need to strengthen bilateral relations and mutual for stability of network in order to increase social capital. In this regard, the strengthening of ties between local stakeholders and increase the level of trust and partnership between them, to increase the velocity of information sources, Coordinating people to deal with the crisis in a short time, respecting the local norms and practices in relation to the exploitation of resources and the responsibility to protect them and prevent the destruction of its stakeholders is essential. Strengthening social capital managers can assist in problem solving and the key challenges facing them. Certainly the strengthening of social capital and empowerment will increase the quality of life. Also can be stated based on the methodology of this study, Network analysis enables quantitative and mathematical indicators in relation to social factors affecting sustainable development and local empowerment is measured.
social capital, network analysis, rangeland utilizes, participation, Gorgan