Pathology of Forms of Municipal Government in Iran



Urban management forms (model) are a key and important factor on characteristics of urban governance. Study of literature and other country’s experience suggest application of various form of urban management and government that each have own specification, legal and administrative characteristics. In Iran, in spite of 100 years record in establishing municipalities, there is not any legal and formal reference for specification of urban management form. Study of evolution of urban management form in Iran indicates that council- manager form has been dominant so far. Present paper examines different urban government form in America and Europe and also evolution of those forms in Iran’s act and legislations. In present paper, weakness and failures of existing urban management form has been analyzed. According to this analysis, the most significant weaknesses are: lack of separation between political and technique-based leadership, limited scope of municipal functions, imposing a specific urban management form for all cities of country, weakness of check and balance mechanisms in regulating council and manager relationship, lack of local and district councils and mode of councilor’s elections