Generally, the theories in explanation of studying phenomena consider on a specific identity dimension of phenomena (objective, subjective or objective - subjective) and appropriate to that select a specific method to get the understanding, or interpretation of explanatorily cognition of phenomenon. Theories discussed in political geography from this perspective are different. Classical theories in the field of political geography based on the objective nature of phenomena and using positivism method give an explanatorily cognition from the phenomena. Based on this, it was easier to understand them. But from late 1990 a new generation of theories called as postmodern political geography and critical geopolitics emerged in political geography, giving exciting and challenging attitudes from world and it’s features, and technical terms used in them are often difficult and complex. So Richard Muir interpreted, understanding them in compared to classical theories requires understanding the intellectual – philosophical development in the late twentieth century.
This essay using hermeneutical method and content analysis of written articles and books in this area try to understand epistemology and methodology foundations of those theories. And that philosophy schools emerged in the late twentieth century what impact on the political geography and geopolitical theories have emerged.
Results and Discussion
We want to discuss about the philosophical nature of theories and philosophical and intellectual developments in the late twentieth century. Then we know whether the intellectual – philosophical developments have influenced on the philosophical foundations of epistemology and ontology theories in the political geography and geopolitics or not.
There have been described the philosophical foundations of theories, the epistemology, ontology and methodology, and then intellectual – philosophical developments in the late twentieth century, the Structuralism, Post-Structuralism, post-Marxism, feminism and post-modernism, and their affect on philosophical foundations of theories in social sciences.
In the main part of essay, opinions are known as the post-modern political geography and critical geopolitics, based on those intellectual and philosophical foundations explained to specify the nature of their methodology and epistemology.
esults show that new ideas in the field of political geography go out from the status of positivism which was obtained using positivism method and based on considering objective phenomena. These theories are following objective or objective - subjective phenomena. So their methodology is changed. The major of theirs is discursive and hermeneutics.