The term social justice was raised by John Stewart since 19th century. According to him, social justice means that society should have the some behavior with all those who have the same capabilities. This phrase entered geographical literature since late 1960. And affected radical and liberal geography more than other schools such that David Harvey, one of the followers of radical school, in his book "social justice and city", considers the use of social justice as essential in geographical analyses. In the first section in Islamic Republic of Iran insight for 1400, developing an advanced urban society with social justice is emphasized. In order for all the city residents to have equal access to urban facilities and services, "social justice" in cities is discussed. Social justice in cities means continuity of the protection of different social groups rights based on the optimal distribution of urban sources, income and costs. Realizing social justice is one of the basic elements of urban studies and a city can be a city once social justice covers all its angles. The important issue in social justice is how to distribute services and facilities among urban areas. The consequences of lack of social justice can be suburban settlement, excessive accumulation in one area, land plays and many others. The point to mention in this regard is the function of cities in attracting people and a kind of social and economic classification. In the book "theory of city by Queen Lynch, providing space for essential functions appears in line with powerful values and providing justice and equality in line with ideal values which have been rarely achieved and are not followed seriously. One of the principles of urban planning is spatial justice which should be taken into account. On the other hand, land has always been a source of social problems. The extra value of land is one factor in social separation, change in urban space and dispersion of less profitable activities from the city center. Thus, distinct areas are formed inside the city. Studies indicate the existence of active, semi active and deprived areas.
The city of Ardakan with the area of 2928 hectares is located in 60 Kms North of Yazd and central plateau of Iran. This city with a population of 52102 and accumulation 17.8 in hectare is one of the biggest cities of Yazd province and the transit road from Tehran to Bandar Abbas called sento this city. This city is divided into 13 areas considering social and economic features. To investigate the realization of social justice in these areas, indices such as spatial distribution of urban services and facilities and additional value of land have been taken into account, using different methods. The hypotheses in this study are as follows: 1- There are remarkable inequalities in 13 areas of Ardakan considering social- economic and cultural indices. 2- The spatial consequence of unfair distribution of facilities and services is difference among land prices in 13 areas of Ardakan.
Results and Discussion
To test the hypotheses and quantitative analysis, statistical tests (correlation coefficient) are used and several models of categorization of residences and determination of optimal place are used which include the sum of service units, standardization of heterogeneous data, feature coefficient model and numeral taxonomy model. The main purpose of this research is to identify the spatial distribution of facilities in Ardakan and its relation with the realization of social justice. And finally to analyze its spatial reflection with respect to land price and its increased value. For the final combination of the results of models, after find categorization, one numerical value was given to every model. Then, the numerical values of the ranks were added and based on the sum of numerical values, the ranks of areas were determined. So that the highest numeral has a higher rank. According to this method, area 4 as the first, area 7 as the second, area 8 as the third, area 2 as 4th, area 9 as 5th, area 12 as 6th, area 11 as 7th, area 10 as the 8th, area 13 as the 9th, area 3 as the 10th ranks and finally areas 6,1 and 5 as are placed at the lowest ranks respectively.
Research findings show that in 13 areas of Ardakan the distribution of urban services is imbalanced and it has caused social injustice in Ardakan so that areas 4 & 7 have been provided with development facilities more than other areas and areas 5 &1 less than others (proof for the first hypothesis). The cost of land also has meaningful correlation with the discussed indexes (proof for the second hypothesis).