Document Type : Research Paper
Associate Professor, Geography and Urban Planning, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
PhD. Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
MSc in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Rasht, Rasht, Iran
PhD Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Isfahan, Iran
Principles of economic development in each country need to invest in various economic sectors and activities. Without investment in infrastructure and superstructure projects, it cannot be expected to expand production, employment and economic welfare. To understand this, we can see many countries today have found a strong tendency to attract investment. Investment in tourism infrastructure and use of power potential of a region is a good way to attract tourists. Understanding the circumstances and events of Environmental and Tourism Development Planning plays an outstanding impact to raise our awareness and insights of planning process and policies of Tourism development. Therefore, these are the most important issues for successful planning of this industry. This can identify characteristics of different regions and environmental conditions and appropriate planning with their capacity. Tourism industry includes a range of sectors and different services and features. Thus, development and management of tourism should be executed in a controlled, integrated and sustainable manner and based on a rationally program. By adopting such approach, tourists can benefit from many interests in tourism destination without creation of the most serious environmental, social and cultural problems. The purpose of this study is to provide an Environmental Analysis Model With systems approach to Tourism Planning in Maku Township.
With respect to the components studied and nature of subject, this research is carried out by a descriptive – analytical method. In terms of aim, this was an applied study and library surveys in section research literature are used for gathering information. The obtained quantitative techniques of logical relationships can provide a reasonable and accurate evaluation of the characteristics and relationships between phenomena. DEMATEL method is based on the graph separating the two groups of cause and effect factors involved. The mentioned technique is a major 5 step method including direct relationship matrix, normalization direct relations matrix, calculation of total relationships matrix, design of cause – effect diagram and Calculation for each of the factors.
Results and Discussion
The results of the study suggest the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats in tourism industry in Maku Township. In this study, we have used of dematel methods to determine the complex relationships among each of the factors of internal environment and the external environment and also to explore the relationships among them and their impacts on each other. This method also allows the evaluation of the performance of final factors in the planning tourism development in Maku and discovery of gap among them. The combination of these factors for tourism planning in Maku Township has the strengths including historical and cultural rich attractions, convenient geographic position, beautiful landscape and unique natural scene. The opportunities are use of capabilities, potentials and advantages of a free trade zone for marketing and attraction of national and even international investments. There are areas suitable for development of medical tourism, investment potential for sports tourism development provide the reputation for Maku because of its location on the border with Turkey as a gateway to Europe for Iran, Increased interest and motivation for travel on holidays and weekends year. The weaknesses are poor quality and quantity of services and tourist facilities, poor management function responsible for Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization, lack of a coherent technical program for tourism development due to lack of tourism experts in relevant organizations, low levels of public awareness and capacity of tourism development. The threats are investment and widespread advertising with close tourist attractions at reasonable prices in neighboring countries, centralization in planning and management in national, regional and local levels, possible decline in demand for spending travel and leisure time tourist sites, negative attitudes toward safety and security of the tourism sites outside the range of urban and rural areas. Identification and prioritization of accurate and appropriate strategies to exploit the opportunities and strengths and fade out weaknesses and remove the threats can be achieved by a competent tourism development planning in Maku Township. Among analysis of environment matrix factors, weaknesses with numerical points (R= 11.7) has had the greatest impact on tourism development. Among strengths, S1 (Namely, historical and cultural rich attractions) has high numerical score (R= 6.663). Among weaknesses, W2 factor (Namely, weak management function responsible for Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization, lack of advertising and marketing to potential and actual tourists, no investment in tourism projects employment and income, poor management, and conservation of historical and cultural attractions) has high numerical score (R= 3.485). Among opportunities, O5 factor (Namely, use of capabilities, potentials and advantages for a free trade zone for marketing and attraction of investments in national and even international levels in the field of important shopping in creation of centers of recreation and tourism collections) has high numerical score (R= 6.723). Among the threats, T4 factor (Namely, negative attitudes toward safety and security of the tourism areas outside the urban and rural range) has high numerical score (R= 3.371). These factors in the four groups have the greatest impact on tourism development planning in Maku Township.
According to the factors affecting tourism planning In Maku Township, some strategies are presented. These are increased productivity, potentials management improvements, tourist attractions, convergence and integrity in activities planning. Integration of public and private sectors in creation of tourist services and facilities with High Quality and policy can reform tourism development. Design, modification and tourism capabilities optimization reform competitiveness and planning structure to achieve tourism development. Adoption of a development policy can do action as a filter for planning. Investment and improvement in quantity and quality of services use the existing strengths to reduce weaknesses and obtain appropriate available opportunities to deal with possible threats.