Comparative Analysis of Sustainable Development Indicators in Bam after the Earthquake of 2003 and in the Other Urban Areas of Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Prof. of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Shahid Bahonar Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2 PhD Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning, Payame-e-Noor University, Tehran, Iran

3 MA in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Sistan and Baluchistan, Iran


Today, systems of management and urban planning attempt to reach a more sustainable development through monitoring promotions in urban development and development plans. Monitoring of changes in the urban places and sustainable urban development is considered as a base for the realization of worthy goals of urban sustainable development. The Bam after the earthquake 2003, compared to other cities were encountered with wide variations in the context of physical, economic - social and environmental conditions.
It seems essential to evaluate the developmental changes of this urban area in comparison with the statement of sustainability indices of other cities. The aim of the present research is the investigation and analysis of different dimensions of sustainability in bam and its comparison with other urban areas of nation. According to end of this work, the theoretical base of this research is outlined as follows: it seems that there is significant difference between sustainability levels of urban development with other urban areas of Iran.
Method of this study is analytic – descriptive. The needed data are gathered from public census and are analyzed by sign test. The subject has a documentary method. The analysis level in some of the selected indices is social, economic and environmental. The case study of this research is Bam. The data have been gathered from censuses in 2006 and statistic yearbook. The indices under study are 37 selected indicators in social, economic and environmental parts. For analysis of  the data, at first statistic indices that are related to social, economic and environmental dimensions in Bam and other urban districts of Iran have been gathered and then by using SPSS the difference between stability dimensions of Bam and national average has been considered.
Results and Discussion
In order to test the hypothesis and simplifying the process of putting this study in to practice, the main hypothesis was divided into 3 minor hypotheses. These have been tested through the statistic test. The findings are: In social dimension, Sig is 0/0 35 and is less than meaningful level of  =0/05.  Therefore, H0 is rejected and this can be concluded that there is a meaningful difference between the level of stability development of Bam and other urban districts of the country in social dimension. Moreover, the results show that since there are many positive signs, level of development stability of Bam in social dimension are higher than other urban districts. In economic dimension the significance value (0/754) is greater than   = 0/05 and H0 is proved and this can be concluded that the difference between level of development stability of Bam and other urban districts of country in economic dimension is not meaningful. In environmental dimension the significance value (0/039) is less than  = 0/05. Therefore, H0 is rejected and this can be concluded that the difference between level of development stability of Bam and other urban districts of Iran in environmental dimension is meaningful. The results indicate that, since there are many positive signs, level of development stability of Bam in environmental dimension is higher than other urban districts
The results of analysis in the scale of stable dimensions indicated that, in economic indices, Bam is in a low position compared with other cities, the dependence ratio in Bam, is higher than the national average and the amount of 10-14 years old children who are the labor force in society is very large. The desirable employment in economic parts has a low position but many people are inactive. About the reasons of such conditions, it can be mentioned that, there are many reasons, such as: the annihilation of native population, the immigration of unskilled and not well educated people from rural regions to Bam, destruction of aqueducts, gardens, physical foundations, ownership affairs and social abnormality. Moreover, the essence of agenda and plans that have been put into execution after the earthquake is the cause for paying less attention to economic affairs in Bam. Based on research results, it can be mentioned that the dimensions of economic, pleasure, aesthetic and welfare in development plans in Bam were weak and that most of the plans and projects are related to physical and constructional affairs, but according to undesirable economic and psychic conditions of inhabitants, which are the disadvantages of the devastating earthquake in 2003, need economic, welfare, leisure, aesthetic and psychic actions. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare and execute economic agenda and make more efforts in planning proper schedule for development of the city in the future, and try to promote economic indices as the foundation of a pleasant life for people in the city. Because of the disturbance of the social texture of the city after the earthquake, increase in households and in the population of children and teenagers, in society dimension, it is necessary to make proper scheduling for them.  In environmental dimension, the conditions of landscape and urban natural gas facilities were undesirable. Thus, it is important that in addition to providing energy foundations especially urban gas as an economical energy and decision about it must give priority to the demand of pleasure, aesthetic and welfare in development plans in the future. By considering these matters, equal development in triple dimensions of stability and also a comprehensive development of all cities can be achieved in national level.


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Volume 46, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
February 2014
Pages 587-602
  • Receive Date: 01 December 2012
  • Revise Date: 09 February 2015
  • Accept Date: 07 July 2013
  • First Publish Date: 23 September 2014