Estimation of the value of recreational the grate parks in the Mashhad City using contingent valuation method and the logit model

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Geography and Urban Planning, Yazd University, Iran

2 PhD Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran


The urban green space is very important as a critical component in urban planning. Thus, in most issues about parks and urban green spaces it can improve people's quality of life as an important strategy. Parks and urban green spaces can provide valuable recreational opportunities for those who live in cities. They also create a natural environment and biodiversity for many people to provide physical and mental well-being. Dedication of an area to create a park and the preservation of it can increase economic costs to the relevant bodies. Unfortunately, despite the importance of these ecosystems, such as environmental services, they are inalienable and cannot be completely absorbed. It has different commercial markets, in comparison with other financial services. Environmental economists do believe that the economic value services and benefits for non-market recreational parks and green spaces, is essential for any urban area. Long-term neglect of these areas may cause irreversible damage to the natural resources and sustainable development process. They also believe that estimation of the value of parks and recreational activities to improve environmental policies can be effective to achieve sustainable development indicators. Therefore, to quantify and determine the monetary value of parks and green spaces can play a double role in the integrated management of human and natural systems.
The necessity of attention to the parks in Mashhad because of some population and tourism condition of this city caused a great importance. It caused different environmental and economical services provided by a picturesque view of the city. This calls attention of planners to cities management.
According to casting Valve project, the economic entertainment activity in big parks in Mashhad could be effective in microclimate condition of the city and other condition rather than smaller parks. This is very beneficial. In this research, we tried to discuss about the value of entertainment of parks from viewer point of view by using a twofold - double questionnaire and their Willingness To Pay (WTP) and (CV). In other words, the willingness to pay to use the facilities and services available at the parks and recreational value, they say. The research that has been done in the field estimate the recreational value of forest parks promenades, especially outside of the cities studied and large parks within the city has to estimate the recreational value has not been given. Due to the great recreational value of urban parks need to understand when considering that the large parks in Mashhad about 17 percent of the total area of parks and green spaces are the city of Mashhad.
According to the goals of this research, we have used two ways of application. First, in background of this project, we figure out how to achieve our goals. Then, we marked the biggest parts of Mashhad. Second, we marked the quantity of this project by double questionnaire and sample method. Then, we start study about parks by SPSS software. We discuss about the viewer character. Valuation and variable models of people willingness to pay was calculated. Finally, the values of parks were specified in the city.
Results and Discussion
According to the results of this research, the mean payment of Koohsangi Park is 7815.5 Rials and for each annual visit of Koohsangi Park it is 110160123.791 Rials.WTP value for Mellat Park is 10000 Rials according to each visit. The value of entertainment of Mellat Park is 243085755.813 Rials and also the mean value of entertainment of each hectare in Mellat Park for each family is 579600 Rials. Among 136 of 170 respondents how were asked in Koohsangi Park, 80 Percent of them were ready to pay cash to use this parks facilities and in contrast 34 respondents (20 Percent) of people were not eager to pay. Among 155 respondents out of the 169 respondents who are asked in Mellat Park, 91.7 percent of them were ready to pay cash and 3.8 percent were ready to pay for parks facilities.
To increase the recreational value of parks, some suggestions can be recommended. The efforts of improving the quality of urban parks in Mashhad can be caused by increase in viewer and their willingness to pay for facilities. In this case, the policies for keeping standard of environment and creation of some jobs would be a remarkable achievement. The results of this research show that the values of people WTP for Mellat and Koohsangi parks can be caused to decide for investment. For improving culture to save their environment, it’s better to have advertisement from the organizations related to this case. Therefore, it is recommended that, the management of parks should be studied in same special monthes of year with fewer visitors of the parks. Hooding festivals culture activities and more facilities can be suitable for their relaxation and entertainment.


Main Subjects

گجراتی، دامودار، 1385، مبانی اقتصادسنجی، ترجمة حمید ابریشمی، چاپ چهارم، جلد دوم، مؤسسة انتشارات و چاپ دانشگاه تهران، تهران.
اسماعیلی ساری، عباس و نگین لطفی اسکویی، 1387، ارزشگذاری اقتصادی و تفرجگاهی پارک جنگلی عون بن علی تبریز، علوم و تکنولوژی محیط‌زیست، سال دهم، شمارة 4، صص 208-217.
امامی میبدی، علی و مرتضی قاضی، 1387، برآورد ارزش تفریحی پارک ساعی در تهران با استفاده از روش ارزشگذاری مشروط، فصلنامة پژوهش‌های اقتصادی ایران، سال دوازدهم، شمارة 36، صص 187-202.
امیرنژاد، حمید و صادق خلیلیان، 1385، برآورد ارزش تفریحی پارک‌های جنگلی ایران با استفاده از روش ارزشگذاری مشروط: مطالعة موردی پارک جنگلی سی‌سنگان نوشهر، مجلة منابع طبیعی ایران، جلد ۵۹، شمارة 2، صص 365-376.
حسینی، سیدمصطفی، 1391، برآورد ارزش اقتصادی پارکهای بزرگ شهر مشهد، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد، استاد راهنما: دکتر رضا مستوفی الممالکی، دانشکدة علوم انسانی، دانشگاه یزد، یزد.
حکمتی، جمشید، 1369، طرح باغ و پارک، انتشارات سیاه‌تیری، تهران.
خاکسار آستانه، حمیده، محمود دانشور، کلاته عربی، وحید و سیدمحمدرضا اکبری، 1390، برآورد ارزش تفریحی پارک‌های جنگلی شهر مشهد با استفاده از روش ارزشگذاری مشروط، تحقیقات اقتصاد کشاورزی، جلد 3، شمارة 2، صص 61- 78.
سازمان پارک‌ها و فضای سبز شهرداری مشهد، 1390.
سعیدنیا، احمد، 1383، کتاب سبز شهرداریها، چاپ سوم، جلد نهم: فضای سبز شهری، انتشارات سازمان شهرداری‌ها و دهیاری‌های کشور.
شهابی، سمیه و عباس اسماعیلی ساری، 1385، تعیین ارزش تفرجگاهی تالاب انزلی به روش هزینة سفر (T.C.M)، علوم و تکنولوژی محیط‌زیست، سال هشتم، شمارة 3، صص 61-70.
شهرداری مشهد، 1382، شناسنامة پارک‌های بزرگ سطح شهر مشهد، پارک کوهسنگی.
شهرداری مشهد، 1388، شناسنامة پارک‌های بزرگ سطح شهر مشهد، پارک ملت.
صامتی، مجید، معینی، شهرام، مردیها، مریم و مجتبی خانی‌زاده امیری، 1391، ارزشگذاری تفرجی بوستان جنگلی ناژوان اصفهان با استفاده از روش ارزشگذاری مشروط، اکولوژی کاربردی، سال اول، شمارة 1، صص 64- 79.
قربانی، رسول، 1387، ارزیابی کمبود پارک در مناطق شهری تبریز با استفاده از روش سرانه/پارک و روش بافرینگ، دو فصلنامة صفه، سال هفدهم، شمارة 47، صص 109-120.
مجنونیان، هنریک، 1374، مباحثی پیرامون پارک‌ها، فضای سبز و تفرجگاه‌ها، انتشارات سازمان پارک‌ها و فضای سبز شهر تهران، تهران.
یخکشی، علی، 1351، مقدمه‌ای بر پارک‌های ملی و جنگلی ایران، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، تهران.
Damvdar, G., 2006, Foundations of Econometrics, Translated by: Abrishami, H., Vol. 2, 4th   Edition, Tehran University Press, Tehran. (In Persian)
Adams, C. et al., 2008, The Use of Contingent Valuation for Evaluating Protected Areas in the Developing World: Economic Valuation of Morro do Diabo State Park, Atlantic Rainforest, São Paulo State (Brazil), Ecological Economical, Vol. 69, No. 2, PP. 359-370.
Amir Nejad, H., and Khalilian, S., 2006, Estimated Value of Forest Parks and Recreation Using Contingent Valuation: A Case Study of Forest Park Sisangan Noshahr, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, Vol. 59, No. 2, PP. 365-376. (In Persian)
Barker, R. G., 1968, Ecological Psychology, Stanford University Press, Stanford Ca.
Brouwer, R., 2000, Environmental Value Transfer: State of the Art and Futher Propects, Ecological Economics, Vol. 32, No.1, PP.137-152.
Emami Meybodi, A., and Qazi, M., 2008, Estimate the Recreational value of the Park Saei Tehran Using Contingent Valuation, Journal of Iranian Economic Research, Vol. 12, No. 36, PP. 202-187. (In Persian)
Esmaili Sari, A., and Lutfi Oskoee, N., 2008, Economic and Recreational Valuation of Forest Parks, Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 10, No. 4, PP. 208- 217. (In Persian)
Forester, B., 1989, Valuing Outdoor Recreational Activity: A Methodological Survey, Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 21, No. 2, PP.185-197.
Ghorbani, R., 2008, Evaluation Shortage of Parks in Tabriz Urban Areas, Using of Capitation Urban Parks and Buffering Method, Journal Soffeh, Vol. 17, No. 47, PP. 109- 120. (In Persian)
Hanemann, M. W., 1994, The Statistical Analysis of Discretere sponce CV Data, In Bateman, I. J., Willis, K. G. (Eds), Valuing Environmental Prefernces, Oxford University Press, PP. 302-441.
Hanley, N., and Spash, C. L., 1993, Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment, Edward Elgar Publishing, Hants.
Hekmati, J., 1990, Plan of Gardens and Parks, Press the Siyah Tiry, Tehran. (In Persian)
Hosseini, S. M., 2012, The Estimated Economic Value of the Large Parks in Mashhad, Master's Thesis, Faculty of Humanities, Yazd University. (In Persian)
Jorgensen, A., Hitchmough, J. and Calvert, T., 2002, Woodland Spaces and Edges Their Impact on Perception of Safety and Preference, Landscape Urban Plan, Vol. 60, No. 3, PP. 135-150.
Khaksar Astanh, H., Daneshvar, M., Kalate Arabi, V. and Akbari, M. R., 2011, Estimate the Recreational Value of Forest Parks in Mashhad Using Contingent Valuation Method, Journal of Agricultural Economics Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, PP. 61- 78. (In Persian)
Kramer, R., Mercer, D., 1977, Valuing a Global Environmental Goods: US Pro Text Tropical Rain Forests, Land Economics, Vol. 73, No. 2, PP. 193-199.
Lee, C. K. and Han, S. Y., 2002, Estimating the Use and Preservation Values of National Parks Tourism Resources Using A Contingent Valuation Method, Tourism Management, Vol. 23, No. 5, PP. 531- 540.
Majnonyan, H., 1995, Discussion of Parks, Gardens and Promenades, Publication by Organization of Parks and Green Spaces, Tehran. (In Persian)
Muderrso, L. H. and Dem. R. Z., 2004, The Relationship Between Perceived and Safety in Urban Recreation.
Municipality of Mashhad, 2003, Identification of the Major Parks in the Mashhad of City, Koohsangi Park. (In Persian)
Municipality of Mashhad, 2009, Identification of the Major Parks in the Mashhad of City, Mellat Park. (In Persian)
Organization of Mashhad Municipality's Parks and Green Spaces, 2011. (In Persian)
Park, T. and loomis, J., 1996, Joint Estimation of Contingent Valuation Survey Responses, Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 7, No. 2, PP. 149-162.
Powe, N. A. and Willis, K. G., 1996, Benefits Received by Visitors to Heritage Sites: A Case Study of Warkworth Castle, Leisure Studies, Vol. 15, No. 4, PP. 259- 275.
Saeednya, A., 2004, Municipalities Green Book, 2nd Edition, Vol. 9: Urban Green Space, Published by the Department of Municipalities and Dhyaryhay Iran. (In Persian)
Sameti, M., Moini, Sh., Mardiha, M. and Khanizadeh Amiri., M., 2012, The Recreational Valuation of the Forest Park Nazhvan Using the Contingent Valuation Method, Iranian Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 1, No.1, PP. 64- 79. (In Persian)
Sattout, E. J., Talhouk, S. N. and Caligari, P. D. S., 2008, Analysis Economic Value of Cedar Relics in Lebanon: An application of Contingent Valuation Method for Conservation, Ecological Eonomics, Vol. 61, No. 2, PP. 315- 322.
Shahabi, S. and Esmaili Sari, A., 2006, Determination of Recreational Value of the Anzali Wetland Using the Travel-Cost Method (T.C.M), Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 3, PP. 61-70. (In Persian)
Shivanand, B. and Dragi´cevi´, S., 2005, Attitudes Toward Urban Green Spaces: Integrating Questionnaire Survey and Collaborative GIS Techniques to Improve Attitude Measurements, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 4, No. 71, PP. 147–162.
Shrestha, R. K. and Alavalapati, R. R., 2004, Valuing Environmental Benefits of Silvopasture Practice: A Case Study of the Lake Okeechobee Watershed in Florida, Ecological Economics, Vol. 19, No. 49, PP. 349-359.
Smith, R. M., Gaston, K. J., Warren, P. H. and Thompson, K., 2005, Urban Domestic Gardens (V): Relationships Between Lands Cover Composition, Housing and Landscape, Landscape Ecol, Vol. 20, No. 2, PP. 235-253.
Takano, T., Nakamura, K. and Watanabe, M., 2002, Urban Residential Environments and Senior Citizens’ Longevity in Megacity Areas: The Importance of Walkable Green Spaces, Journal of Epidemiol Community Health, Vol. 56, No. 12, PP. 913-918.
Turner, R. k., Pearce, D. and Bateman, I., 1994, Environmental Economics, Harvester Wheatsheaf, London.
Venkatachalam, L., 2003, The Contingent Valuation Method: A Review, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, PP. 89-124.
Ykhkeshy, A., 1972, Introduction of the National Parks and Forests, Tehran University Press, Tehran. (In Persian)