Ecotourism Entrepreneurship Development Pattern in Rural Areas (Case Study: River Valley Tourism in Tehran Providence)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Geoghraphy Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

2 Full Professor, Department of Geography, University of Tarbiat Modarres, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Geography, University of Tarbiat Modarres, Iran

4 Full Professor, Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Nowadays, diversification of rural economy through entrepreneurship development is considered by researchers and planners. Diversification of rural economy through entrepreneurship development is regarded as one of the paths of rural economic development. Therefore, it is one of new economic opportunities that strongly growing because of world needs, as the rural tourism or specially ecotourism. Thus, rural tourism and espacialy ecotourism as one of the new opportunity of the economy is growing and expanding because of global, regional, national and local needs. These phenomena are especially important in the margine of metropolitans such as Tehran because of the need of famillies and citizens for enjoying natural environments with pretty view and far from pollutions, particularly in the form of tourism valley. The concept of ecotourism as an ideal term of Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development is based on the global currents, eliminating many ecosystems. The role of human interference in the nature is more than that of environmental factors. Because of this, there is still a vulnerable stability condition without resistance. Other scholars including Carter and Caudal are in doubt about tourism and environmental sustainability; they believe that sustainable tourism, despite its obligations to environmental conditions, would not be achievable. However, some people like Butler believe that in spite of numerous investigations in this area, we must await the results and the related successful outcomes in the future. However, using the appropriate setting for the leisure environment involves population appeals. Ecotourism is able to use the increased powers of environmental cooperation, its economic impact, environmental protection, sustainable development and mobility and dynamism in the local and regional economy. Climatic and natural attractions along with different geographical heritage of human civilization and ethnic and racial diversity of the expensive-for-people stock has brought up the sustainable exploitation.They require different conditions based on stability in the tourism sector. Today, entrepreneurship development can be applied for diversification of rural economy as one of the paths of rural economic development. These phenomena are important, especially in marginal region of great urban areas like Tehran due to the public need for enjoying nature and avoiding pollution.
Accordingly, the main question in this article is that” the Ecoutourism entrepreneurship development based on what pattern is possible?” Therefore, the main goal of this study is to present the Ecotourism Entrepreneurship Development pattern in Rural Regions with valleys tourism potential. In this study 17 rural areas in 7 rivers - valley path have been selected as a sample case by aquantitative-survey methodology. This is investigated in 3 dimensions: environmental condition, policies and law procedure and entrepreneurship. The three dimensions can influence the development of ecotourism entrepreneurship. Moreover, quantitative, survey and qualitative methods have been used to evaluate contribution of the three dimensions in four groups of the study, i.e., elites, business owners as entrepreneurs, rural communities in family level and tourists. Thus, to determine the influnce of these tree factors on ecotourism entrepreneurship development in case study rural area, relationship and contribution of the influential factors has been evaluatedto determine the optimal pattern.
Results and discussion
The results of the analysis indicate that from three visions of the study groups (elites, business owners as entrepreneurs, rural communities in family level and tourists), all of the three dimension factors with the confidence level of 0.05 are significant. About Contribution of each factor in explaining the rate of entrepreneurship development, the result of Tukey analysis show that in vision ofthe elites, policies and legal procedures have the highest mean rate (4.25). But in visions of other study groups entrepreneurial characteristics have the highest rate (with 3.4 and 3.7). Descriptive statistics also confirm this result. Therefore, entrepreneurial characteristics with 0.459 coefficient have the highest effect and policies and legal procedures with 0.485 and Environmental conditions with 0.385 coefficients are in other ranking. To determine the differences of rural in protected area in ecotourism entrepreneurship, T test analysis indicatesignificant level coefficient is not important. Also, Codification of strategies for ecotourism entrepreneurship development showed that most of the existing trend is defensive. But to achieve the desired position in the development of ecotourism entrepreneurship it is required to adopt an aggressive strategy. Finally, the presented ecotourism entrepreneurship development pattern by 25 indices in three dimensions explains 35.2 percent of ecotourism entrepreneurship development goals in the region. The results also show that based on the selected index and Pierson Regression sample in SPSS application, there are significant relation among the 3 affective dimensions in entreprenureship development. Based on selected indices (36 cases) through Pearson analysis, relationship among the three factors are significant.
Descriptive statistics can also confirm these results. Based on the results of multiple liner regression and path analysis, the amount of indirect effect of the variables and the entire effect (direct and indirect) have been calculated. Based on multicriteria regression and Path Analysis technique, entrepreneurship has the most effective dimension, policies and law procedure is the second effective dimension and finally environmental condition with lay in the third rank. Ultimately, Ecotourism Entrepreneurship Development pattern by considering the indexes and the 3 mentioned dimensions can explain 35.2 percent of entrepreneurship development of ecotourism for the region.


Main Subjects