Measurement and Analysis of Effective Factors on Public Participation in Rural Management Process, with an Emphasis on Councils (Case Study: Asalem District)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Geography and Rural Planning, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran

2 PhD Candidate in Geography and Rural Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Today, creation of local institutions represents the levels of participation. Local institutions and community organizations are a mechanism to attract the public participation and collaboration and also a context to incorporate the people collaboration in the management process of their settlement environment. Participation in rural development management process is not done in a vacuum and must be representative of the decision-making bodies. The institutionalization of participation is possible only through institutions. These institutions are considered as a mechanism to integrate public participation in local communities and participation of local people in social life by the organization is an identity (Abdullahi et al., 2010: 29). Rural management is a multilateral process, which consists of three pillars, people, government and public institutions. In the process of public participation and through rural organizations, the rural development plans has been formulated and implemented and the monitoring and evaluations have also been undertaken (Rezvani, 2005: 211). In other words, rural management indeed is the process of organizing and conducting the rural society through shaping organization’s and institutions involved in the management of rural areas. These organizations and institutions are tools to provide the goals of rural society and play an important role in achievement of development goals (Roknodin Eftekhari et al., 2008: 8). To explain the importance of participation in the rural management and its emergence by the social institutions, it should be noted that the rural residents integrated in participatory institutions and encouragement of their participation is explained by the influence of structural, institutional, social and economic processes. Furthermore, the micro-level variables such as personal characteristics and mental traits are also effective in public participation (Saidi, 2004: 171). The people are explained in the forms of rural organization. In general, the participation is resulted from a social interaction. Conditions and social space is unique to the social system and also unique to the individual. In other words, for a complete and correct understanding of social action, one must first identify the economic- social and cultural external factors that affect the individual action. Second, the factors unique and important to the individual are examined (external factors and internal factors) (Moghadasi, 2010: 4). One of the internal factors that play an important role in facilitating and limiting people's participation in local institutions is individual characteristics. External factors to attract the public participation in local institutions in rural areas are structural. Empirical evidence from the study area indicated a low level of public participation in the field of rural management institutions and people's participation in management institutions. Generally, the purpose of this article is to answer these fundamental questions: what is people participation in rural management institutions (village council)? What indicators are related to the participation? Which dimension has the greatest impact on people participation?
This study is a type of applied research with descriptive - analytical methods for data analysis. The data in this study were collected by questionnaire and survey. The research population is 15 villages in Asalem District. Based on measurements of Cochran sampling method, 209 individual residents were selected as the sample. In this article, data analysis and hypothesis testing were by inferential statistics such as frequency distribution, correlation coefficient and regression t- test using SPSS software.
Results and Discussion
The results show a correlation between gender and participation as a meaningful relationship. Generally, participation is resulted from individual social action. Such a feature makes it necessary to study and survey social space (participation). The results of correlation show that among the individual indicators there is just correlation between the gender and participation. According to the independent Samples Test, average participation in women is 2.926 and in the men 3.493.
We can express that there are significant differences between average of participation in women and men. This point can be because of this reason that in rural communities women are less involved rural affairs than are men. There is no relationship between the place indicators and participation. Unlike previous studies that there is a relation between the economic conditions with participation, this is not true in Asalen and there has not been any relationship between economic indicators and the participation. In order to measure the participation rate, we have used one- sample T- test. Thus, we indicated that average of participation is equal to 3.33 and average test value( is equal to 3. Therefore, we can say that participation in community sample is located in the average level. Average participation in each of the studied villages indicate that Klasara and Chakharamahale villages have the highest level of participation with 3.84 and 3.69, respectively, and Ershadmahale and Gharibmahale with 2.71 and 2.96 have the lowest level of participation. Between individual, place and economic indicators there is correlation only between the gender and participation. The results of regression show that the greatest impact on configuration of the social participation between the components has the social trust with Beta rate (0.346). On the other hand, the social trust can affect 34.6% of the variation of the participation.


Main Subjects

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  • Receive Date: 10 May 2014
  • Revise Date: 07 October 2014
  • Accept Date: 07 October 2014
  • First Publish Date: 20 March 2016