Analysis of Spatial Fragmentation in the Spatial Organization of Yazd Using Network Analysis and Space Syntax

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor of Urban Planning, Department of Urban Planning and Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

2 MA in Urban Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


One of the critical issues associated with sustainability in the twenty-first century is how cities are growing and developing in the space. Rapid urban growth and physical development of cities cause disintegration of the spatial organization of cities and consequently spatial inequality between urban spaces. This phenomenon can be considered as spatial segregation or fragmentation in the urban space. To accept the principle of sustainable development requires a coherent and balanced spatial structure of cities. Our modern cities have been faced with imbalance service and fragmented urban growth. This can show instability in the cities, such as poverty and informal settlements, spatial and social gaps and a lack of cohesion, the excessive density, traffic and environmental pollution. Urban spatial structure is affected by road network and the main urban landuse, particularly Urban Public Services. The objective of this research is to find spatial fragmentation based on distribution of public services and the spatial structure of urban road network in Yazd city.
To perform this analysis, we have used polygon layer of Yazd block and street network layer in GIS 10. To analyze the level of public services, we also employed network analysis technique with 10 variables including educational and cultural, health, sporting, shopping centers, urban facilities, office services, parks, police, and passenger terminals. To analyze the spatial organization of urban spatial structure, Space Syntax technique have been employed with 5 variables including global and local integration, connection, control, and intelligibility. This analysis has been made by using axwoman6 extension in ArcGIS 10 software. The method of Space Syntax is a suitable technique for analysis of urban spatial structure permeability. Integration is the main concept of configuration space. Integration of a point indicates its connection to the general structure or a subset of it.
Since the value of the variables is different, the Fuzzy Delphi technique has been used for weighting of them. The Fuzzy Delphi is the combination of Delphi method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in fuzzy environment. In this method, AHP weighting process is done based on the Pairwise Comparison Matrix. The indicators are weighted by 10 urban professionals who have knowledge of the physical space.
Finally, we have also used Kernel Density analysis to analyze patterns of spatial fragmentation and Hot spot analysis to understand the spatial clustering and focused fragmentation or integration in spatial structure of Yazd.
Results and Discussion
Overlapping Space Syntax parameters in Yazd city indicates that both north-south and east-west crossing, that almost cover the entire city, are the most integration crossing in the city. As a result, these streets form the city backbone and considered the main factor of the urban spatial organization coherence. Thus, it can be argued that the more spaces between these structures and other urban spaces, the more is the isolated areas or spatial separation in the urban space. The results of Kernel Density analysis of space syntax results represent the spatial coherence in downtown and away from the downtown towards the periphery. This reduces spatial integration and increase in spatial segregation and greater disintegration, especially in margin neighborhoods southwest of the city.
 Simultaneously, the results of network analysis indicate that rich areas are developed in inner urban spatial areas and deprived regions in the newly developed part of the city. The old and historical districts are in the central city of Yazd and much of the city has worn out neighborhoods in these districts. The old districts are at higher level of service than other urban areas in this part of the city. These are the reasons for scattered development, especially on the South West and West edge of the city. Thus, the level of service is zero in these parts of the neighborhoods.
In hot spot clustering, although the central area of the city and the historical context have formed hot spots in terms of service level, but they have low and middle scores in terms of the spatial structure of the spatial concentration. Also, some marginal neighborhoods in terms of service levels are at low level, but in terms of the integration of the spatial structure they have formed hot spots. This phenomenon may be caused by organic fabric of historic neighborhoods and checked fabric of marginal areas. The checked fabric is more permeable than the organic fabric.
Distribution of urban services as one of the main indicators of citizen welfare and shaping urban spatial structure and activity is one of the important problems in most of the developed and developing countries. The results of this study indicate that while some downtown neighborhoods are parts of historical and worn-out textures, but in terms of service levels they have higher scores in comparison with other places around the city. However, this is due to lack of quality of life suffering from time-warning. Lack of coherence and integration of the internal structure of these neighborhoods with the whole structure of the city is the reason for lack of space quality in urban central neighborhoods. Perhaps the historic fabric neighborhoods are isolated socially from the rest of the city, but due to both physical and spatial relationships and integration with the main structure of the city they have no significant difference (although regeneration is necessary, particularly in the internal space areas). Thus, the spatial organization of historical fabric is not the cause of exhaustion in these districts. But the main reasons are social and economic problems. The spaces, which are separated from the spatial organization and formed in cold spots, are populated neighborhoods.
On the other hand, disintegration in the spatial structure of the city is the influential factor in the high horizontal development of the city. Hence, the creation and redefining integration of urban spatial organization is essential to prevent the scattered development in the city.


Main Subjects

  1. Abaszadegan, M., 2001, The Method of Space Syntax in Urban Design Process Looking to Yazd, Urban Management Quarterly, Vol. Vol. 3 No. 9, 64-75. (In Persian)
  2. Armanshahr Consulting Engineers, 2009, A Detailed Plan of Yazd. (In Persian)
  3. Armanshahr Consulting Engineers, 2007, Strategic Plan of Old Texture of Yazd. (In Persian)
  4. Balbo, M. and Navez-Bouchanine, F., 1995, Urban Fragmentation as a ResearchHypothesis, Rabat-Sal Case Study, Habitat International, Vol. 19, No. 4, PP. 57-82.
  5. Bedoya, A., 2012, Access to the City for Everyone, Planning and Spatial Strategies to Counteract Residential Segregation in Bogotá, Graduation Project Report, MS Thesis, Delft University of Technology.
  6. Bezi, K., Kiyani A. and Zarei, Y., 2012, Informal Settelment in Relation to Spatial Deffrences and Increase Socail Security and Crime, Social Welfare, No.44, PP. 231-257.
  7. Blory, J. et al., 2005, Urban Environment Spatial Fragmentation and Social Segregation in LatinAmerica, Where Does Innovation Lie, Habitat International, No. 29, PP. 627-645.
  8. Barakpour, N. and Assadie, I., 2010, Urban Management and Governance, Art University, Tehran. (In Persian)
  9. Daneshpoor, Z., 1999, Analysis ofSpatial Inequality inCities the StudyofTehran, Soffeh Journal, No. 29.

10. Deffner, V. and Hoerning, J., 2011, Fragmentation as a Threat to Social Cohesion? A ConceptualReview and an Empirical Approach to Brazilian Cities, The Struggle to Belong Dealing with Diversity in 21st Century Urban Settings, PP. 1-14.

11. D-Schoonraad, M., 2004, The Long Road to Socio-Spatial Integration Segregation and Inequality in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Published by SN.

12. Enrico, M., 2007, An Analytical Framework for Urban Fragmentation Analysis in the Global South City, Questioning Urban Planning Practices Through an Institutional Approach, N-Aerus XI, Urban Knowledge in Cities of the South, 1-14.

13. Fernandez, R., 2008, Social and Spatial Inequality and Education Policies in Madrid،CanTalk about Educational Segregation? Workshop Metropolitan Governance and Social Inequality.

14. Gordon, I., 2003, Urban Size, Spatial Segregation and Educational Outcomes Monastiriotis, Vassilis, Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics, London.

15. Hanafizadeh, P., Salahi E. and Amiry, M., 2010, SelectInformation Systems inUncertainEnvironments with theuseofHybridMethods (Combining Scenario Planning Techniques, Axiomatic Design and Fuzzy Delphi), Management Research in Iran Quarterly, No 4, PP. 49-78. (In Persian)

16. Hassanzadeh, M., 2008, Analysis of Space Structure of Shiraz Relying on Alain Bertaud Model, MSThesis of Human Faculty, Yazd University, Yazd. (In Persian)

17. Hataminejad, H., Farhoodi, R. and Mohamadpoor, M., 2008, Analysis of Social Inequality in Access to Urban Services, Case Study of Esfaraien, Human Geography Research Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 65, PP. 71-85. (In Persian)

18. Hepp, S., 2011, Metropolitan Spatial Structure, Measuring the Change, University of Maryland, College Park, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of PhD of Philosophy.

19. Hillier, B. and Vaughan, L., 2007, The City asOne Thing, Progress in Planning, Vol. 67, No. 3, 205-230.

  1. Li, H., Campbell, H. and Fernandez, S., 2013, Residential Segregation, Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Areas, Urban Studies, It’s Avalable at:

21. Lotfi, S., Manouchehri A. and Ahar, H., 2014, Analysis of the Pattern of Spatial-Physical Sprawl Using Quantitative Models, the Study of Maragheh, Geography and Planning, No. 43, PP. 191-232. (In Persian)

22. Madani, P., 2013, Dealing with Segregation Improving livability in a Segregated Neighborhood, MS Thesis of Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology.

23. Moussavi, M., 2012, Sustainable City Form and Social Justice, a Case Study of Miandoab, Geographical ResearchQuarterly, Vol. ???, No. 80, PP. 177-192. (In Persian)

24. Omer, I., 2006, Evaluating Accessibility Using House-Level Data, A Spatial Equity Perspective, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Vol. 30, NO. 1, PP. 254–274.

25. Okoli, C. and Pawlowski, S. D., 2004, The Delphi Method as a Research Tool, An Example, Design Considerations and Applications, Information and Management, Vol. 42, No. ???,
PP. 34-47.

26. Orfield, M., 1999, Metropolitans, A Regional Agenda for Community and Stability, Forum for Social Economics, Vol. 28, No. 2, PP. 33-49.

27. Ramos, F. and Biderman, C., 2013, Urban Sprawl and Spatial Segregation in São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Trabalho Apresentado No. 41, Encontro Nacional de Economia.

28. Rezaie, N., 2012, Landuse, Spatial Justice, Patternsand Methods, Kankash Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)

29. Rodrigue, J., Claude C. and Brian, S., 2009, The Geography of Transport Systems, Routledge, London.

30. Shamaie, A., 2004, Analysis of Urban Ecological Structure the Study of Yazd, Kavoshname oloome ensani, Vol. ???, No. 2, PP. ???. (In Persian)

31. Taghvaie A. and Mahmoodnejad, H., 2006, Sustainable Urban Development and Social Welfare Citizenship, Jostarhaie Shahrsazi, Vol. ???, No. 15/16, PP. 36-47. (In Persian)

32. Tavassoli, M., 2002, Urban and Architecture Structure in Warm and Dry Climate, Payam Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)

33. Zakerian, M., Moussavi, M. and Bagheri, A., 2010, Analysis of the Population and Urban Services Distribution in Urban Neighborhoods from the Perspective of Sustainable Developmentthe Stduy of Meybod, Urban Studies and Planning, No. 2, PP. 61-84. (In Persian)

34. Zarrabi, A. and Moussavi, M., 2010,Analysis of the Population and Urban Services Distribution in Urban Areas of Yazd, Geographical ResearchQuarterly, No. 97, PP. 27-46. (In Persian)

35. Ziari, K., Asadie, S., Rabani T. and Molaie, M., 2014, Assessment of Spatial Structure and Providing Urban Development Strategies for New Town of Pardis, Human Geography Research Quarterly, No 45, PP. 1-28. (In Persian)

36. برک پور، ناصر و اسدی، ایرج، 1390، مدیریت و حکمروایی شهری، چاپ دوم، انتشارات دانشگاه هنر، تهران.

37. بزی، خدارحم و کیانی، اکبر و زارعی، یعقوب، 1390، بررسی ارتباط اسکان غیررسمی با افتراق مکانی در افزایش میزان جرم و امنیت اجتماعی شهر بوشهر، فصلنامة علمی پژوهشی رفاه اجتماعی، سال دوازدهم، شماره 44، صص 231-257.

  1. 38.  تقوایی، علی اکبر و محمودنژاد، هادی، 1385، توسعه پایدار شهری و رفاه اجتماعی شهروندی، مجله جستارهای شهرسازی، شماره پانزدهم و شانزدهم، 47-36.
  2. 39.  توسلی، محمود، 1381، ساخت شهر و معماری در اقلیم گرم و خشک ایران، انتشارات پیام، تهران.

40. حاتمی نژاد، حسین؛ فرهودی، رحمت ا... و محمدپور جابری، مرتضی ، 1387، تحلیل نابرابری اجتماعی در برخورداری از کاربری‌های خدمات شهری، مورد مطالعه، شهر اسفراین، مجله پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، شماره 65، 85-71.

  1. 41.  حسن زاده رونیزی، مریم، 1387، بررسی و تحلیل ساختار فضایی شهر شیراز با تکیه بر مدل آلن برتو، دانشگاه یزد، دانشکده علوم انسانی.

42. حنفی زاده، پیام؛ صلاحی، اسماعیل و امیری، مقصود، 1389، انتخاب سیستمهای اطلاعاتی در محیط‌های غیرقطعی با استفاده از روش هیبریدی (تلفیق روش‌های برنامه‌ریزی سناریو، طراحی بدیهی و دلفی فازی)،فصلنامه مدرس علوم انسانی – پژوهش‌های مدیریت در ایران، شماره 4، 78-49.

  1. 43.  ذاکریان، ملیحه و موسوی، میرنجف و باقری کشکولی، علی، 1389، تحلیلی بر پراکنش جمعیت و توزیع خدمات در محلات شهری میبد از منظر توسعه پایدار، مجله پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، شماره دوم، 84-61.

44. رضایی، ناصر، 1391، کاربری زمین، عدالت فضایی، الگوها و روش‌ها، چاپ اول، انتشارات کنکاش، تهران.

45. زیاری، کرامت ا... و اسدی، صالح و ربانی، طاها و مولائی قلیچی، محمد، 1392، ارزیابی ساختار فضایی و تدوین راهبردهای توسعه شهری شهر جدید پردیس، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، دوره 45، شماره 4، صص 28-1.

46. شماعی، علی، 1382 ، بررسی و تحلیل ساخت اکولوژیکی شهری در شهر یزد، کاوشنامه علوم انسانی، سال دوم، شماره 2.

47. ضرابی، اصغر و موسوی، میرنجف، 1389، تحلیل فضایی پراکنش جمعیت و توزیع خدمات در نواحی شهری یزد، فصلنامه تحقیقات جغرافیایی، شماره 2 (پیاپی 97)، 46-27.

  1. 48.  عباس زادگان، مصطفی، 1381، روش چیدمان فضا در فرایند طراحی شهری با نگاهی به شهر یزد، فصلنامه مدیریت شهری، شماره 115، 64-9.

49. عبدی دانشپور، زهره، 1378، تحلیل عدم تعادل فضایی در شهرها، مورد تهران، مجله صفه، شماره بیست و نهم.

50. لطفی، صدیقه و منوچهری، ایوب و آهار، حسن، 1392، تحلیل الگوی گسترش کالبدی فضایی شهر مراغه با استفاده از مدل‌های کمی، نشریه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی، شماره 43، صص 232-191.

51. مهندسین مشاور آرمانشهر، 1388، طرح تفصیلی شهر یزد.

52. مهندسین مشاور آرمانشهر، 1386، طرح راهبردی بافت فرسوده شهر یزد.

53. موسوی، میرنجف، 1391، شکل پایدار شهر و عدالت اجتماعی، مطالعه موردی شهر میاندوآب، فصلنامه پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی، شماره 80، 192-177.