Analysis on Satisfaction of Rural People about Dehyaries Performance (Case Study: Oskou County Villages)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Arcitecture, Department of Management and Agriculture Development, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Management and Agriculture Development, University of Tehran, Iran

3 PhD Candidate in Agricultural Development, University of Tehran, Iran


Dehyary (rural administration unit) as an NGO for its mission need to make assessment and ensure the quality and quantity of process applications and management services. These units are consequently obliged to the social accountability and consent of the villagers. To achieve optimum satisfaction of villagers, as their effective reaction, will affect performance of Dehyary units that they perform duties of citizens with greater confidence, such as participation in development, and social and cultural projects. Thus, many rural development experts also recognize that sustainable development is not possible without the participation of villagers; because the development, decrease costs with the rural people participation. According to the research carried out in the field of rural management, it is a multifaceted process which consists of three pillars: people, government and public institutions. In this process, with the participation of people and through the formation of rural organizations, the rural development programs and projects are developed and implemented and also placed under supervision and evaluation. Since the study explains the level of rural residents’ satisfaction from the performance of Dehyary units, it will cause clear view of the strengths and weaknesses with which the policy-makers and planners are faced in modern management of rural areas. This study attempts to measure and evaluate the level of villagers satisfaction with Dehyary performance in Oskou County. It will be able to identify all tips and significant factors which could have a positive impact on the operation of Dehyary.
This is a kind of quantitative research and in terms of the purpose it is a kind of practical research. The main instrument was a questionnaire via survey in this study. Reliability  was tested by method of content validity or logical validity. The content validity depends on the judgment of experts in the studied subject. Therefore, to determine the validity and revisions, the questionnaire was studied by the faculty of department management and Agricultural Development in University of Tehran. After summing up the opinions and interviews with a number of the units, it was attempted to adjust the final questionnaire. Then, to determine the reliability of the study, a designed questionnaire was used pre-test between 35 residents of villages in Oskou County. The county has 30 villages with only 22 Dehyary units suitable for this study. Therefore, population of this research were formed (N= 40752). To calculate volume of the sample, we examined 35 persons from samples as the pre-test. The standard deviation obtained from the pre-test was equal to 38.1. Then, through the Cochran formula, we obtained number of sample rural residents. Sampling method was also with disproportionate assignment by random sampling. By the way, up to 220 persons among residents of 22 villages were studied. Thus, we selected 10 subjects from each village.
Results and Discussion
The lack of sufficient knowledge of the Dehyary duties for villagers can cause a challenge of excessive expectations. This can lessen the Dehyary performance with public consent. Since the amplitude of the total performance was determined from 1 to 5, it can be concluded that the Dehyary performance on modern management of the villages is from medium to high level. In fact, Dehyary has been relatively successful in management of the covered villages. According to the satisfaction of the villagers from Dehyary performance, the satisfaction rate of the Dehyary performance will be promoted to rank third. It means as much as the degree of Dehyary is higher, its performance has also raised and consequently increased in the level of satisfaction of the rural people. But the performance comes descending from Dehyary’s degree from three onwards. According to the results of the study, the highest satisfaction rate in rural areas is related to the environmental performance and the lowest rate is related to the construction performance of the administration unit. Ability to predict the probability of satisfaction of the rural people was calculated through the prospective and progressive process of the ordinal logistic regression. The results showed that the highest effectiveness is related to social functioning of the Dehyary.
Important findings of this study indicate that 63.3 percent of respondents have middle and higher satisfaction in their villages. According to these findings, the satisfaction of rural people is higher relative to part-time than full-time performance. The analysis of these findings can reveal that due to the workload of full time units the third grade dimensions is heavy. Dehyary performance also is reduced because consent somewhat has direct connection with the performance. It will show dissatisfaction in the rural people. A unit cannot solely conduct different tasks. On the other hand, Dehyary is defined as a legal entity or organization in the context of rural management law while it used to be just one person as an administrator (Dehyar) to do  the tasks. The results of other studies also confirm the findings of the research.  Likane, in his research has introduced a set of factors as a cause of fall in the job performance of the managers. These factors are including insufficient time, not sufficient human resources, lack of cooperation with others as well as no facilities, equipment and tools. Therefore, it is recommended Dehyary Assistance for the units of Grade three and full-time Dehyary.


Main Subjects

1. Ministry of health and medical education, 2007, Executive Functioning Family Doctor Program and Rural Insurance in the Year 2006 and First Month Six 2007, 1st Edition, Department of Health, PP. 7-9.
2. Marans, R. W., 2003, Understanding Environmental Quality through Quality of Life Studies DAS and Its Use of Subjective and Objective Indicators, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 65, PP. 73–83.
3. Rodríguez del Bosque Rodríguez, I., Collado Agudo1, J. and San Martín Gutiérrez1, H., 2006, Determinants of Economic and Social Satisfaction in Manufacturer–Distributor Relationships, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 35, No. 6, PP. 666-675.
4. Eng, Winnie, Meredith, E., Coles, Richard G. Heimberg Steven A. Safren, (2005). Domains of life Satisfaction in Social Anxiety Disorder: Relation to Symptoms and Response to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 19, No. 2, PP. 143-156.
5. Jamal, A. and Naser, K., 2002, Customer Satisfaction and Retail Banking, an Assessment of Some of the Key Antecedents of Customer Satisfaction in Retail Banking, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 4, PP. 146-160.
6. Seidaee, E., Ahmadi Shapour Abadi, M. A. and Moein Abadi, H., 2010, Social Capital and Its Relations to Social Development Elements in Iran: An Introduction, Magazine of Development’s Strategy, Issue 19. (In Persian)
7. Zhongbiao Xiang, Xingsen Li and Jian Yang., 2013, Procedia Computer Science, International Conference on Information Technology and Quantitative Management Customer Satisfaction Scoring for Innovative Product Management Based on Extenics, Vol. 17, PP. 1178–1185.
8. Van Ryzin et al., 2004, Drivers and Consequences of Citizen: An Application of the American Customer Satisfaction Index Model to New York City, Public Administration Review, Vol. 64, No. 3, PP. 286-296.
9. Weitz-Shapiro, R., 2007, The Local Connection: Local Government Performance and Satisfaction with Democracy in Argentina, Journal of Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 41, No. 3,
PP. 285-308.
10. Houman, H., 2002, Preparation and Standardization of Job Satisfaction Scale, Governmental Management Education Center, Tehran. (In Persian)
11. Auh, S. and Johnson, M., 2005, Compatibility Effects in Evaluations of Satisfaction of Loyalty, Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 26, No. 1, PP. 35-57.
12. Choi, K. W. Cho, S. Lee, H. Lee and Kim, C., 2004, The Relationships Among Quality, Value, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention in Health Care Provider Choice, Journal of business Research, Vol. 57, No. 8, PP. 913-921.
13. Fornell, C. M. et al., 1996, The American Customer Satisfaction Index: Nature, Purpose and Findings, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 60, No. 4, PP. 7-18.
14. Grigoroudis, E. and Siskos, Y., 2004, A Survey of Customer Satisfaction Barometers: Some Results from the Transportation- Communications Sector, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 152, No. 2, PP. 334-353.
15. Hornby, A. S., 2000, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, 6th Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
16. Hallowell, R., 1996, The Relationship of Customer Satisfaction Customer Loyalty and Profitability: An Empirical Study, International journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 7, No. 4, PP. 27-42. Retrieved from
17. Sharifzadeh, A., Asadi, A. and Sharifi, M., 2011, Impact-Oriented Evaluation in Sustainable Development, Iranian student book Agency, Tehran. (In Persian)
18. Likane, J., 1992, Assessment of the Situational and Individual Components of Job Performance, Texas: A & M University, Department of Management.
19. Eftekhari, A. R. H., Sojasi Ghadari and Ainali, J., 2007, New Approach to Rural Management with Emphasis on Effective Institutions, Journal of Rural Development, Vol. I, No. 2, PP. 1-30. (In Persian)
20. Akbari, S. and Abdollahi, M., 2008, Collection of Laws and Regulations on Rural Management with the Latest Corrections and Extensions, Ghalamestan Honar Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
21. Mahdavi M. and Ali Akbar Najafi kani (2005) Dehyaris, a new step in iranian rural management, Geographical Research Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 53, PP. 21-34. (In Persian)
22. Badri, S. A. and Aref Mosavi, S., 2009, Modern Rural Management: In Searching of a Policy for Local Management Development, Eshtiag-e Noor Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
23. Rezvani, M. R., 2004, Introduction on Rural Planning in Iran, Ghomes Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
24. Nemati, M. and Badri, S. A., 2007, The Evaluate of New Management Systems’ Functional Role in Small Villages and Large Rural Managers, Comparative Case Study: Golestan Province, Geographical Research Quarterly, No. 59, PP. 158-169. (In Persian)
25. Nayiji, M., 2009, "The Role of Education of Dehyars in Rural Development (Case Study: Dehyaries of Chamestan Rural Districts, Noor County), MS Thesis in Geography and Rural Planning, Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran. (In Persian)
26. Farahani, H., Einali, J. and Abdoli, S., 2013, Evaluation of the Role of Social Capital in Rural Area Development (Case study: Mashhad Maighan County in Arak Township), Practical Geographical Research Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 29, PP.27-50. (In Persian)
27. Habibpour, K. and Safari Shali, R., 2009, Comprehensive Manual for Using SPSS in Survey Researches, Louyeh Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
28. Ghadiri Masoum, M., Taleghani, G. and Kouhestani, H., 2013, The Pathology of Rural Assistance Offices in East Azerbaijan Province: A Case Study of Bostan Abad County, Journal of Rural Development Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1, PP. 93-112. (In Persian)
29. Papzan, A. H., Alibeygi, A. H., 2006, Analysis of Rural People Expectations from council, Journal of Rural Development Studies, Vol. 9, No. 4, PP. 37-53. (In Persian)
30. Azami. A, Sulaimany. A. and Agahi. H., 2011, Assessing Rural People’s Satisfaction from Rural Cooperative Firms in Kermanshah Province, Journal of Zonal Planning, Vol. 1, No. 2, PP. 15-26. (In Persian)
31. Afrakhteh, H., 2009, Rural Management with Special Reference to Iran, Ganj-e-Honar Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
32. Khani, F. and Soori, F., 2012, Gender Approach in Analyzing the Community’s Satisfaction from Rural Mayores’ Performances Case Study: Konani Township in Lorestan Provience, Iran, Geography, Vol. 10, Issue 32, PP. 102-103. (In Persian)
33. Hekmatnia, H. and Moussavi, M. N., 2008, The Evaluation and Influencing Factors for Citizen's Satisfaction from the Municipality's Function (Case Study: Yazd), Geography and Development Iranian Journal, Issue 9. (In Persian)
34. Rostampour. H., Mohammadi Yeganeh, B. and Heydari, H., 2011, Surveying the Function of Rural Islamic Council and the Impact of User's Literacy on It (Case Study: Dayer City), Journal of Urban Management, Issue 26, PP. 181-190. (In Persian)
35. Pourtaheri. M, Hamdami Moghadam. Y, Eftekhari. A. R (2010) Assessment of council performance in rural development (case study: Aladagh Bojnourd District). The modares jpurnal of spatial planning. Quarterly publication. Volume 14, Issue 3, winter 2010. Pp 23-38. (In Persian)
36. Azari, L., Houshmand, M. and Sadat Naghavi, S., 2009, Measuring Satisfaction from the Activities of Border Settlers Cooperatives in Khorassan Razavi Province of Iran, Journal of Rural Development Studies, Issue 2, PP. 87-111. (In Persian)
37. Anabestani, A. et al., 2013, Review the Satisfaction Rate from the Quality of Services of the Organizations Responsible for the Rural Local Management in Ijroud County (Zanjan Province),Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement Iranian Journal, Vol. 3, No. 7, PP. 1-126. (In Persian)
38. Educational Affaire of Urban and Rural Management Institute, 2011, Rural Management (Distance Education of Dehyaries), Organization of Municipalities and Dehyaries Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
39. Shayan, H. et al., 2010, An Assessment of Rural People's Level of Satisfaction with Their Residential Environments: A Case Study of Komijan County, Journal of Rural Development Studies, Issue 1, PP. 181-189. (In Persian)
40. Mohammadifar, Y., Ahmadi. M. and Hashemi, D., 2010, Impact of Trust in State-Run Organizations on Citizen`s Satisfaction, Iranian Journal of Cultural Research, Issue 3. (In Persian)
41. Firoozabadi, H. and Imani Jajarmi, H., 2012, The Villagers’ Satisfaction of Dehyari (Rural Management Unit) Performance (The case study: Ghazvin Province villages), Journal of Rural Research, Issue 1, PP. 61-91. (In Persian)
42. Yazdanpanah, M., Zamani, G. and Rezaei Moghadam, K., 2009, Satisfaction of Farmers Insured Crops, Using Patch Analysis, The Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, Issue 66, PP. 139-164. (In Persian)
43. Beykzad, J. and Molavi, Z., 2009, The Quality of Electronica Services and Customer Satisfaction, Magazine of Work and Society, Issue 113-114. (In Persian)
44. Nazari, A. H. and Sadin, H., 2012, Analysis of Dehyaries Challenges in East of Golestan Province, National Conference on Rural Development, University of Guilan. (In Persian)
45. Affaire of Social and Cultural Studies, 2010, Human Resource Management, Challenges and Strategy, Strategically Researches Institute Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
Volume 48, Issue 3
October 2016
Pages 493-506
  • Receive Date: 31 March 2014
  • Revise Date: 06 January 2015
  • Accept Date: 06 January 2015
  • First Publish Date: 22 September 2016