Analysis on spatial structure of the cities of Bushehr Province for codification strategic planning

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Payam Noor University, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Ph.D. Candidate in Geography, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


Today, large number of world’s major cities is located in coastal environments. These towns have important positions in the economic, cultural and social functions. Coastal areas and the cities in the areas are economically very important in terms of the environment, hazards, and security.  Development of the cities leads to massive investments by shareholders and stakeholders. Other non-coastal cities are also affected by this development. The participation of a wide range of stakeholders and interested investors can be improved in such cities. With this growth process, complex needs are favorable in physical, social, and economic dimensions in these cities. Today, coastal cities are considered to be as a vital source of income for the national economy. These resources are also essential to strengthen their economies of the coastal cities. The dynamics of these cities are largely determined by the axes of development and exploitation of economic activity and tourism. The purpose of this research is to explore and identify and analyze the spatial structure of the coastal and non-coastal cities in Bushehr Province.
This is an applied research with descriptive and analytic methods. Statistical population in this research is 31 points of coastal and Non-Coastal cities in Bushehr Province in 2011. To collect information, this research used study in libraries (Documents). To analyze the data, the spatial structure of coastal and Non-Coastal cities is used in urban and regional planning models. To investigate relationship between the independent and dependent variables and inferential analysis of data, we used advanced dedicational and statistical models, the coefficient of correlation, regression; T-Test, ANOVA and multivariate analysis.  
Results and Discussion
The results of the studies show that the process of urban growth in coastal cities has increased during 1986 to 2006 of about 17.3 percent. The main reason for this is an increasing number of coastal cities and the growing trend of migration to the cities of this province. Population growth in coastal cities is substantially higher than non-coastal cities. Reviews of process rate of population growth in coastal cities in 1986- 2011 indicate a sharp growth rate. However, this is also true for non-coastal cities and total population of the cities of the province.
Analytical findings by simultaneous multiple regression models show that coastal cities have huge oil and gas fields with a much higher level of spatial development. The standard deviation of economic function is equal to 0.814 in spatial structure of coastal cities. The results obtained by Spearman coefficient is equal to 0.865 and this value reflects the fact that there is a very strong positive correlation between the distribution of population and growth and development of economic, cultural, transportation and infrastructure functions between coastal and Non-Coastal cities in Bushehr Province. Finally, a comparison between the coastal and Non-coastal cities is carried out by T-test. Development of space structure in coastal cities is more than that of Non-Coastal cities. Accordingly, in development of the coastal cities, we should use all economic capacity. In other words, we can say that sustainable economic development of the coastal cities in Bushehr is benefitted from oil and gas resources and from the business and job service. Nevertheless, based on the research findings to develop desirable coastal and non-coastal areas, there are some suggestions: welfare infrastructure, socio-economic improvement in urban centers, promotion of health level, education in small cities, development of balance and equal access to services in major cities such as Bushehr, Borazjan, Dylam, Kangan, Ganaveh and Jam. development of tourism can be effective for the area.


Main Subjects

  1. AbdeL-Latif, T., Ramadan, S. T. and Galal, A. M., 2012, Egyptian coastal regions development through economic diversity for its coastal cities, Housing and Building National Research Center, HBRC Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, PP. 252- 262.
  2. Anderson, J., 1995, Piracy and world history: An economic perspective on maritimepredation, Journal of World History, Vol. 6, No. 2, PP.175- 199.
  3. Bamaniyan, M. R., Klvi. A. and Eshlouh, H., 2012, Explaining the approach choice of Develop management strategies for coastal areas with emphasis on Ecology, Journal of Urban Management, Vol. 2, No. 30, PP. 21-22.
  4. Brinkhoff, T., 2009, The principal agglomerations of the world, It’s Available from, accessed on 7 May 2009
  5. Clark, R. J., 1996, Coastal Zone Management Hand Book, CRC Press, USA.
  6. Cori, B., 1999, Spatial Dynamics of Mediterranean Coastal Regions, Journal of Coastal Conservation, Vol. 5, No. 2, PP. 105- 112.
  7. Decker, E. H., Elliott, S., Smith, F. A., Blake D. R. and Rowland F. S., 2000, Energy and material flow through the urban ecosystem, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, Vol. 25, No, 2. PP. 685– 740, It’s Available at:
  8. Divsalar, A. and Parhizgar, A., 2005, City ecology and its effects on the sustainable development of coastal cities, coastal cities Babolsar, Space Logistics Journal of the Planning and Spatial planning, Vol. 15, No. 3, P.20.
  9. Fletcher, S. and Smith, H. D., 2007, Geography and Coastal Management, Coastal Management, Vol. 4, No. 35.
  10. Habibi, K., Alizadeh, H., Moradi Masihi, V., Valadbigi, S. and Vafaei, S., 2011, Investigation and analysis the situation social justice in the spatial structure of the city of Sanandaj, Architecture and Utopia, Vol. 4, No. 7, PP. 103.
  11. Hasanzadeh Ronizi, M., 2008, Spatial structure of cities in Fars province, MS Thesis, University of Yazd.
  12. Sutanta, H. and Rajabifard, A., 2010, Studying Spatial Plan in Coastal Urban Environment facing global threat and adapting to local condition, Ian BISHOP, FIG Congress 2010, facing the Challenges – Building the Capacity, Australia.
  13. Hosienniya, N. and Ashori Chaharde, M., 2011, Evaluation of the indicators sustainability in the economic of coastal city with emphasis on Equilibrium Model of maritime and the environment economy, 1st Conference of Iranian Urban Economics.
  14. Kay, R. C. and Alder, J., 1999, Coastal planning and management, London, Routledge.
  15. Li, H., 2003. Management of coastal megacities a new challenge in the 21st century, Marine Policy, 27. Vol. 27, No. 24, PP.333-337.
  16. Long, H., Zou, J. and Liu, Y., 2009, Differentiation of rural development drove byindustrialization and urbanization in eastern coastal China, Habitat International, 33. Vol. 33, No. 8, PP.451-459.
  17. Mashhadizadeh Dahaghani, N., 1995, An analysis of the characteristics of urban planning in Iran, 2nd Edition, University of Science and Technology Publication, Tehran.
  18. Miller, M. & Auyong, J., 1991, Coastal zone tourism, Marine Policy, Vol. 15, No. 2, PP. 75- 99.
  19. Milligan, J. and O'Riordan, T., 2007, Governance for sustainable coastal futures, Coastal Management, Vol. 35, No. 4, PP. 499-500.
  20. Mimura, N., E., 2008, Asia-Pacific coast and their management, states of environment, Springer, Dordrecht.
  21. Mousavi, M. N., 2009, Analyzing effect of border function on spatial structure of frontier cities case study: Western Azarbaijan, Ph.D Thesis, Philosophy in Urban Planning, Isfahan University, School of Humanities, Geography Department.
  22. Pena, I., 2002, Intellectual capital and business start-up success, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 3, No. 2, PP. 185.
  23. Polyzos, S., 2011, Regional development, Kritiki Publications, Athens, Greece. Roberts, B., 1989, Urbanization, migration, and development, Sociological Forum, Vol. 4, No. 4, PP. 665- 691.
  24. Satterthwaite, D., 2005, The scale of urban change worldwide 1950- 2000 and its underpinnings, Human Settlements Discussion Paper.
  25. Sekovski, Ivan; Alice Newton and William C. Dennison (2012), Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 96, No. 110, P. 96.
  26. Setioko, B.,  Pandelaki, E. E. and Murtini, T. W., 2013, Towards sustainable urban growth: The unaffected fisherman settlement setting (With case study semarang coastal area), Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol. 17, PP. 401– 407.
  27.  Tanner, T., Mitchell, T., Polack, E. and Guenther, B., 2009, Urban governance for adaptation: Assessing climate change resilience in ten Asian cities, IDS Working, and Brighton: IDS.
  28. Tissier, L. et al., 2004, A Training Framework for Understanding Conflict in the Coastal Zone, Coastal Management, Vol. 32, No. 1, PP. 77- 88.
  29. UNDESA, 2006, World urbanization prospects: The 2005 revision, United Nations Population, Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York.
  30. Yeung, Y., 2001, Coastal mega-cities in Asia: Transformation, sustainability and management, Ocean & Coastal Management, Vol. 49, No. 2,  44, PP. 319– 333.
  31. Ο’ Sullivan, A., 2003, Urban Economics, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill Publications, Boston, USA.