Spatial Planning of Tourism Services (Case Study: Fars Province)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Geography and Cartography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor of Geography and Cartography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 M.A. Student in Geography and Tourism Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Tourism industry, according to figures and statistics published by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) in the new millennium, has turned into the largest source of world revenue. The economists know this industry as the third dynamic economic activity after oil and automotive industries. Travel and Tourism is a dynamic industry which boosts economies by generating income, employment, investment and exports. Iran as one of the developing countries in the world, which its oil supplies are the main source of income and in near future these oil supplies will be finished, needs to use its whole potentials to provide a sustainable and comprehensive development and also substituting new income sources instead of oil resources. Iran is including one of the top ten countries which according to terms of UNESCO have outstanding archaeological and historic attractions. It is also one of the most noble of human civilization in the realm of political geography, but it accounts for a tiny proportion of the major tourism market in the world. One of the main reasons for this failure is the inappropriate presentation and unavailability of optimum services and facilities in Iran. In the highly competitive tourism industry, service becomes one of the most important elements to gain a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace. Consequently, the efforts of service managers and academic researchers are directed towards understanding how customers perceive the quality of services. Satisfaction of visitors is very desisive in success of a destination. Therefore, the tourists’ satisfaction requires a detailed analysis of the services and its proper handling. One way to satisfy tourists is the tourism spatial planning program, because tourism development planning approach can be an effective factor in achieving the goals of sustainable and balanced development of our country. In opinion of most scientists and planners the required goals in this activity is much more than the economic and social benefits and needs of a general plan. On the other hand, spatial planning to develop the tourism attempts to reach the best spatial pattern of regional development.
Since the great history of civilization and cultural identity of Iran is peered by monuments in different towns of Fars Province, this province is one of the most important tourism centers of Iran. Thousands of visitors annually visit its historical, cultural and natural attractions. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the planning of tourism services because these centers have an essential role in the comfort and satisfaction of tourists and also economic development of tourism destinations. It is obvious that optimum access to tourism services requires the establishment of services in appropriate places so that the tourists can have access to them by the least time and expenses. As it was mentioned, the most important goal of this research is to make a zoning of optimal supply centers of the tourism services throughout the Fars Province. Thus, proportional to each destination capacity, we will initially manage the tourists and their demands better and then recognize destinations with limitations and try to solve these problems.
This research is an analytical, descriptive and practical research. The data have been collected by library and field studies. First, the criteria of spatial planning of tourism services were defined by Delphi method, then for analysis of the data, the hierarchical weighting method of Fuller has been used. After weighting the criteria, the optimization and ranking models were used to choose the appropriate zone of tourism services. The MAPPAC, as a mental-based method according to the experts’ opinions, and Artificial Neural Network method, as a data- based method, have been used to make a zonnation for appropriate tourism services. It is necessary to indicate that this research has no statistical sample and the statistical society is all of the tourism attractions and services of Fars Province.
Results and Discussion
Definition of the criteria is one of the most important and fundamental steps of any research.  Criteria of this research were obtained by Delphi method including: 1. Specific or transportation services (petrol stations, gas stations ...), 2. Business services (supermarkets, fast food markets …), 3. Natural factors (slope, elevation and natural hazards), 4. roads, 5. tourism attractions (natural, historical, religious) and 6. infrastructures (leisure centers, police centers …). Then, by Fuller model, the criteria were weighted. According to the opinions of experts, the most important one was the historical attractions and the least weight was allocated to the natural hazards. After weighting the data layers, the criteria were connected to the base unit of political zones of Fars Province. After the required layers were connected to the base unit, according to the research goal of ranking the appropriate tourism zones, the optimization and ranking models were applied because the distribution of services in proportion of tourism attractions were not spatially balanced. In other words, there are tourism attractions which despite of owning high potential of attracting tourists have no or not enough services. The MAPPAC method based on the opinion of experts was used for ranking and prioritization of the appropriate zones. Then, by applying the ANN model the best zone of tourism services were distinguished.
Results of MAPPAC technique of Artificial Neural Network model indicate that a great part of Fars Province, despite its tourism attractions, has less or no tourism services. Political parts of Eghlid, Sepidan, Bavanat, Mamasani, Ghir and Kazeroon, Firooz Abad, Farashband, Jahrom, Khonj, Zarin Dasht, Garash, Lamerd and Mohr towns have the least services. It is essential that tourism planners and managers prioritize these zones. Also, parts of Shiraz, Marvdasht, Zarghan, Abadeh, Darab, Sarvestan, Kazeroon and Seydan towns have better and more appropriate services.


Main Subjects

  1. احمدی، علی و بهیار دایی، 1376، اضافه­کردن روش دلفی در تعیین اولویت استراتژی اهداف سازمانی، پنجمین کنفرانس دانشجویان مهندسی صنعتی، دانشگاه علوم و تکنولوژی، تهران.
  2. اسلام، علی‌اکبر، 1380، برنامه‌ریزی بازاریابی، چاپ نشر و پژوهش‌های بازرگانی، ص 278.
  3. آسایش، حسین و علیرضا استعلاجی، 1382، مقدمه‌ای بر برنامه‌ریزی منطقه‌ای، انتشارات دانشگاه آزادشهر ری.
  4. بهنام مرشدی، حسن، 1391، برنامه‌ریزی فضایی خدمات گردشگری استان فارس (نمونة موردی: محورهای اصلی استان فارس)، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد رشتة جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی توریسم، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران.
  5. تقوایی، مسعود و سیدرامین غفاری، 1389، برنامه‌ریزی فضایی در توسعة صنعت گردشگری، مطالعة موردی: استان چهارمحال و بختیاری، محور بازفت، فصلنامة تحقیقات جغرافیایی، سال بیست­وپنجم، شمارة 1، صص 79- 100.
  6. لی، جان، 1378، گردشگری و توسعه در جهان سوم، ترجمة رکن­الدین افتخاری، عبدالرضا و معصومه صالحی، انتشارات تحقیقات بازرگانی، تهران.
  7. حسینعلی، فرهاد، آل­شیخ، علی‌اصغر و محمدعلی رجبی، 1388، بررسی روش‌های وزن­دهی اطلاعات فضایی در GIS (نمونة موردی: تدارک نقشة پتانسیل مواد معدنی)، مجلة سنجش‌ازدور و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، شمارة 1، صص 73- 88.
  8. راهنمایی، محمدتقی، 1374، چگونگی افزایش سهم ایران از بازار جهانگردی، مجموعه­مقالات نخستین همایش جهانگردی جمهوری اسلامی ایران، جلد اول.
  9. سمیعی، علی و ابراهیم رئیسی، 1379، ارزیابی چندمعیارة پروژه‌های منابع آب از دیدگاه توسعة پایدار در ایران، چهارمین کنفرانس سدسازی.
  10. شاد، روزبه، عبادی، حمید، سعدی مسگری، محمد و علیرضا وفایی‌نژاد، 1388، طراحی و اجرای عملی GIS برای مکان‌یابی مناطق صنعتی با مدل فازی، وزن‌دهی نشان‌گذار و ژنتیک، مجلة مهندسی، شمارة 5، صص 547- 559.
  11. شاه‌حسینی دستجردی، سمانه، شاه­نوشی فروشانی، ناصر، دریجانی، علی و کامران داوری، 1391، کاربرد مدل شبکة عصبی مصنوعی در شبیه‌سازی سختی خشکسالی، نمونة موردی: مطالعة ایستگاه تورشاکلی در استان گلستان، سومین کنفرانس مدیریت منابع آب، دانشکدة کشاورزی ساری.
  12. صفوی، امان‌الله، 1364، ایده‌های معاصر درمورد ارزیابی برنامه، مجلة آموزشی، جلد 1، شمارة 2، صص 64- 75.
  13. طالقانی، محمد و سارا فتاحی، 1384، کیفیت خدمات گردشگری و اهمیت آن در جلب رضایت گردشگر، مدیریت، شماره­های 99- 100، صص 56- 63.
  14. عشورنژاد، غدیر، 1391، بهینه‌سازی فضایی الگوی استقرار شعب و خدمات بانک‌ها و مؤسسات مالی و اعتباری شهر تهران، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد رشتة سنجش‌ازدور و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران.
  15. غفاری، سیدرامین، مرادی، محمود و داوود نیک‌بخت، 1390، سطح‌بندی و برنامه‌ریزی فضاهای گردشگری روستایی بخش مرکزی شهرستان بویراحمد، مطالعات و پژوهش‌های شهری و منطقه‌ای، سال سوم، شمارة 11، 97- 118.
  16. غفاری، سیدرامین، 1387، مقدمه‌ای بر برنامه‌ریزی کالبدی سکونتگاه‌های روستایی، چاپ اول، انتشارات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شهرکرد، شهرکرد.
  17. فتحی واجارگاه، کورش، 1381، ارزیابی نیازهای آموزشی، الگوها و تکنیک‌ها، آیژ، تهران.
  18. قدرت­نما، قهرمان، 1372، ارزیابی‌های چندمعیاری در طرح‌های توسعة منابع آب، آب و توسعه، شمارة 2، صص 11- 23.
  19. کاظمی ازغندی، سیمین، 1390، سازمان‌دهی فضایی مقصدهای گردشگری در مقیاس ناحیه‌ای، شهرستان طرقبة شاندیز، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدة مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران.
  20. کاظمی، مهدی، 1387، مدیریت گردشگری، انتشارات سمت، تهران.
  21. گی، چاک وای، 1382، جهانگردی در چشم‌انداز جامع، ترجمۀ علی پارسائیان و سیدمحمد اعرابی، چاپ دوم، انتشارات دفتر پژوهش‌های فرهنگی، تهران.
  22. مدهوشی، مهرداد، 1382، ارزیابی موانع توسعة صنعت گردشگری در استان لرستان، فصلنامة پژوهش‌های بازرگانی، شمارة 28.
  23. مظفری، غلامعلی و معصوم دوستی، 1391، ارزیابی و مکان‌گزینی پارک‌های درون‌شهری منطقة 1 یزد با استفاده از روش بولین و روش دلفی در سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، مجلة پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، دورة چهل­وچهارم، شمارة 4، صص 65- 78.





  1. Ahmadi, A. and Dai, B., 1997, Applying the Delphi Method in Determine the Priority of Strategic Organization Objectives, The 5th Conference of Industrial Engineering Student, University of Science and Technology, No. 1, PP. 24-42. (In Persian)
  2. Asayesh, H. and Esteelaji, A. R., 2003, The Principals of Regional Planning, Islamic Azad University of Shahre Rey, Tehran. (In Persian)
  3. Ashournezhad, G., 2013, Optimizing the Spatial Pattern of Branches of Banks and Financial Institutions and Credit Services in Tehran, MA Thesis, Geography Faculty, Tehran University, Tehran. (In Persian)
  4. Baťa, R. and Obršálová, I., 2009, Sustainable Environment Indicators and Possibilities of Their Aggregation by Means of Petri Nets, Recent Advances in Environment, Ecosystems and Development, PP. 147-152.
  5. Behnam Morshedi, H., 2013, Spatial Planning of Tourism Services, Case study: The Main Paths of Fars Province, A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Studies Office in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements, MS Thesis, Geography and Tourism planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran. (In Persian)
  6. Boers, B. and Cottrell, S., 2005, Sustainable Tourism Infrastructure Planning: A GIS Based Approach, Proceedings of the 2005 Northern Recreation Research Symposium, Bolton Landing, Forest Service, North-Eastern Research Station, 2005 April 10-12, PP. 151-160.
  7. Cuhls, K., 2001, Delphi Method, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Germany.
  8. Dreage, D., 1999, Destination Place Planning and Design, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 26, No. 4, PP. 772-791.
  9. Erdal, D. S., 2011, The Structural Analysis of Key Indicators of Turkish Manufacturing Industry: ORESTE and MAPPAC Applications, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 60, NO.1, PP. 6-18.
  10. Eslam, A., 2001, Market Planning, Commercial Research Publications. (In Persian)
  11. Fathi Ajaregah, Kourosh., 2002, Assessment of Educational Needs, Patterns and Techniques, Aezh, Tehran. (In Persian)
  12. Ghafari, R. et al., 2011, Classifying and Spatial Planning of Villages Tourism the Central Zone of Boyer-Ahmad Town, Urban and Regional Studies, No. 11, PP. 97-118. (In Persian)
  13. Ghafari, R., 2008, An Introduction on Physical Planning of Villages Dwelling, Azad University of Shahre Kord Publications. (In Persian)
  14. Ghodratnema, G., 1993, Multi-Criteria Assessment in Developing the Water Resources, Water and Development Magazine, No. 2, PP. 11-23. (In Persian)
  15. Gi, C. W., 2003, Tourism, Translated by: Parsaeian, A. and Eerabi, M., The Cultural Researches Office Publications, 2nd Edition, Tehran. (In Persian)
  16. Guun, C. A. and Var, T., 2002, Tourism Planning: Basic, Concepts, Cases, 4th Edition, Routledge, New York.
  17. Hadar, M. and Hader, S., 1995, Delphi und Kognitions Psychologie: Ein Zugang Zur Theoretischen Fundierung der Delphi-Methode, in: ZUMA-Nachrichten, Vol. 37, No.19, PP. 28-36.
  18. Hornik, Kur., Stinchcombe, M. and White, H., 1989, Multilayer Feed Forward Networks are Universal Approximates, Neural Networks, 2, PP. 359–366.
  19. Hosseinali, F. et al., 2009, Surveying the Weighting Methods of Spatial Information in GIS (Case Study: Preparation of Mineral Potential Map), Remote Sensing and GIS Magazine, No. 1, P. 73-88. (In Persian)
  20. Jablonský, J., 2009, Software Support for Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Problems, Management Information Systems, Vol. 4., No. 2, PP. 29-34.
  21. Li., John, 1999, Tourism and Development in Third World, Translated by: Eftekhari, A. and Salehi, M., Commercial Research Publications. (In Persian)
  22. Joorabchi, A., Zhang, H. and Blumenstein, M., 2007, Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Flow Discharge Prediction for the Fitzroy River, Australian Journal of Coastal Research, SI. 50, PP. 287-291.
  23. Kampf, R., 2003, Estimation Methods for Weight Criteria, Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, PP. 225-261.
  24. Kamruzzaman, J., Begg, R. and Sarker, R., 2006, Artificial Neural Networks in Finance and Manufacturing, Idea Group Publishing, USA.
  25. Kazemi Azghandi, S., 2001, Spatial Organizing of Tourism Destinations in Regional Scale, Torghabe Town, MA Thesis, Allameh University, Management faculty. (In Persian)
  26. Kazemi, M., 2006, Tourism Management, Samt Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
  27. Kennedy, H. P., 2004, Enhancing Delphi Research: Methods and Results, J. Adv Nurs 2004 Mar; Vol. 45, No. 5, PP. 504-511.
  28. Kim, H. K., 2008, Multi-Scale Nonlinear Constitutive Models Using Artificial Neural Networks, MS Thesis of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology.
  29. Kim, T. W. and Valdes, J. B., 2003, A Nonlinear Model for Drought Forecasting Based on Conjunction of Wavelet Transforms and Neural Networks, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 6, PP. 319-328.
  30. Korviny, P. R., 2003, Program for Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, (Software, In Czech), Ostrava, Czech Republic.
  31. Kravka, M., 2012, Colloquium on Landscape Management, Brno, Czech Republic, Mendel University, Brno, 3rd February.
  32. Leopold, Paszek, Jiri. Gurecký, Prokop. Mold_Ík., 2008, Determination of Criteria Weights in Terms of Computer Software, Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, PP. 154-157.
  33. Madhoushi, M., 2003, The Evaluation of Obstacles of Tourism Management in Lorestan Province, Commercial Researches Magazine, No. 28. (In Persian)
  34. Matarazzo, B., 1986, Multi-Criteria Analysis of Preferences by Means of Pairwise Actions and Criterion Comparisons (MAPPAC), Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 18, No. 2, PP. 119-141.
  35. Matarazzo, B., 1990, A Pair Wise Criterion Comparison Approach: The MAPPAC and PRAGMA Methods, Readings in Multiple Criteria Decision Aid, In Bana, E. and Costa, C. (Editors), PP. 253-273.
  36. Matarazzo, B., 1991, MAPPAC as A Compromise Between Outranking Methods and MAUT, European Journal of Operational Research, No. 54, PP. 48-65.
  37. Middleton, V., 1994, Marketing in Travel and Tourism, Butterworth Heinemann Oxford, PP. 11.
  38. Mozaffari, Gholamali and Dusti, M., 2012, Evaluation and Locating of City Park of Yazd Region 1 Using Boolean and the Delphi Method in GIS, Journal of Research in Human Geography, Vol. 44, No. 4, PP. 78-65. (In Persian)
  39. Perzina, R. and Ramik, J., 2012, Dame-Microsoft Excel Add-In for Solving Multi-Criteria Decision Problems with Scenarios, Proceedings of 30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics, PP. 697-702.
  40. Porhinčák, M. and Eštoková, A., 2012, Process of Selection of Building Materials towards Sustainable Development, Chemical Engineering Transactiions, PP. 547-552.
  41. Powell, C., 2003, The Delphi Technique: Myths and Realities, J. Adv Nurs, Feb, Vol. 41, No. 4, PP. 376-382.
  42. Rahnemaei, M. T., 1995, Increasing the Iran’s Portion in Tourism Market, The first Proceedings of Iran’s Tourism Industry Conference, Vol. 1. (In Persian)
  43. Safavi, A., 1985, Contemporary Opinions about Assessments of Plan, Education Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 2-3, PP. 64-75. (In Persian)
  44. Samie, A. and Raesi, I., 2000, Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Water Resources Projects in Sustainable Development Perspective, The 4th Conference of Dam construction. (In Persian)
  45. Sessa, A., 1983, Elements of Tourism Economics, Catal, Rome.
  46. Shad, R., et al., 2009, Designing and Performing Practical GIS for Locating Industrial Zones by Fuzzy Model, Weight Markers and Genetic, Faculty of Engineering Magazine, No. 5, PP. 547- 559. (In Persian)
  47. Shahhosseini, S., et al., 2012, Application of Artificial Neural Network Models in Simulation of Drought Severity (Case study: Torshakli Station in Golestan Province), The 3rd National Conference of Water Resources Management, Agriculture University of Sari, Mazandaran. (In Persian)
  48. Sobri, H., Nor Irwan, D. A. N. and Amir Hashim, M. K., 2002, Artificial Neural Network Model for Rainfall-Runoff Relationship, Journal Teknologi, Vol. 37, No. B, PP. 1–12.
  49. Road Transportation Organization pub,2010, Statistical Yearbook of Road Transportation.
  50. Taghvaei, M. and Qafari, S. R., 2010, Spatial Planning in Tourism Planning: Case Study: Chaharmahal and Bakhtiyari Province, Geographic Researches, Vol. 25, No. 1, PP. 79-100. (In Persian)
  51. Taleghani, M. and Fattahi, S., 2005, The Quality of Tourism Services and Its Importance in Attracting the TouristsSatisfaction, Management Magazine, No. 99-100, PP. 56-63. (In Persian)
  52. Tosun, C., 1996, Regional Planning Approaches to Tourism Development, Tourism Management, Vol. 17, No. 7, PP. 519-531.
  53. Zijian, Z., 2005, Researches on Function-Link Artificial Neural Network-Based Load Cell Compensation, PP. 1-7. http://www.Imeko.Org.