Stability Analysis of the Relationship between Family Farming Systems and Food Security in Ghani-Bigloo Rural Areas, Zanjan

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Candidate in Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


To achieve the objectives of food security and sustainable agriculture, effective role in strengthening national independence requires fast and accurate transition from production stage of traditional livelihoods to the industrial production and trade stage. On the other hand, the pursuit of sustainable agriculture today as an approach to agriculture made it possible to begin commercial production and food security of rural households. Family uses, accounted for about 80% of total agriculture uses. Therefore, the relationship between their tersest is collected and food security in rural is of utmost importance. In this regard, this study also analyzes their relationship between the food security and sustainable agriculture. Generally, this study consisted of three parts: theoretical perspective, methodology and hypotheses testing.
According to the order of study to identify the relationship between food security and family farming systems in Ghani-Bigloo district, we have used the functional approach. This study is a descriptive research that is carried out using the correlation-analysis method. This research has two documentary and survey parts. In documentary part library research is used to collect previous and theoretical research, and a small section to analyze the data. Basic data on the status of food security and sustainability of family farming system in the Ghani-Bigloo rural was measured by a questionnaire. The questionnaire is consisted of three parts: descriptive questions such as age, gender, education, food security status. Second part of questions is related to sustainability of family farming systems in sustainable agriculture and household food security operation. In the third part, it is concerning to check the status of household food security and requirements according to standard food basket of ministry of health. According to different studies, the authors of 10 social indicators, economic indicators and 9 environmental indicators to identify the factors affecting the economic, social, environmental and food security in the lives of  beneficiaries were selected in the district of Ghani-Bigloo. Since the total study population included 1324 family farmers in 8 rural areas, among them, 300 farmers were selected to complete the questionnaire using Cochran formula and table sample. The data necessary to navigate the desired 8 villages were selected in random and were carefully collected. SPSS.21 software was used for data analysis and one-sample t-test for analysis of the stability of family operation. Turkey’s test and Pearson's chi-square tables were also applied to examine the relation taking advantage of the family and the general index correlation test for the relationship between sustainability and social and economic characteristics of interest.
Results and Discussion
Descriptive findings indicated individual characteristics of the users of family farming systems, within average age of 44.6 years for men and just 5.2% of women. Average family size is 4.3 persons per household operation. In terms of education, about 19.6% were illiterate, about 29.9% had primary education, about 17.5% had secondary education, about 11.5% high school education, about 12.8% diploma, and about 8.7% of the remainder had a bachelor’s or higher graduated education. The findings in relation to food security status of households in the rural study area are demonstrated. Among commodity basket standard items, there was only a poor person's consumption and the highest level of poverty was among foods items such as meat, fish and vegetables. The findings demonstrated in statistical community show 20.13% with absolute poverty and 41.91% with relative poverty.
Analysis of hypothesis and the results demonstrated relation between food security and sustainable family farming systems in Ghani-Bigloo rural in Zanjan City. This is not a positive and significant correlation and is not acceptable condition for stable operation of this system. In addition, average family size in three dimensions of sustainability including economic, environmental and social requires assessment of desirability. In the second analysis, the results indicated statistically significant differences between the dependent variables of food security in rural households of farmers and sustainable agriculture is independent variable. The following results are based on sustainable agriculture. The rural farmers have no significant differences in household food security. Therefore, we can say that increase in the sustainability of agricultural systems exploit a rich family in Ghani-Bigloo district, food security at the household will increase proportionally.


Main Subjects

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