Document Type : Research Paper
Assistant Professor, Deparment of Urban Planning, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran
M.Sc. in Regional Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Bachelor Student in Urban Planning Engineering, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran
The main objective of this research is to perform a site selection and planning with respect to environmental and spatial characteristics. This is to gain the primary social and physical needs of survivors of the accident (the earthquake) and promoting the health condition of crisis. This is for multipurpose use of these places even in ordinary or emergency situations. In this regard, this study with the respect locating different areas of Iran on the earthquake belt, has investigated the city of Urmia as the model of spatial database for contemporary site selection for safety purposes after earthquake. Some influencing factors on the vulnerability of city are various parameters such as: building age (16.7% of the city context is old, including 300 hectares historical fabrics), quality of buildings (about 56% of the buildings of Urmia are damaged, repairable and maintainable), Urban transportation routes, amount of traffic, population and building density, land use of different areas, type and material of different geological layers, etc. These have much effect on crisis management, especially during and after the earthquake. The old fabrics of Urmia, includng one and two-storey buildings with low and compact infrastructure, do not have technical standards against earthquakes. According to the importance of the issue, this paper tries to select optimal temporary sites for health purposes after the occurrence of earthquake in Urmia. This is by natural- physical information and the use of new techniques and methods of Network Analysis Process (ANP) and geographic information system (GIS).
This research has descriptive- analytic methodology with the functional methods and data collection is the library and documentary. We used the Super Decision software for calculations of the analysis network process model using the ArcGIS software for spatial modeling and region zoning.
Results and Discussion
Therefore, in order to express the theoretical basics and analysis network process (ANP), we have investigated the effective measures of site selection for the temporary settlement. For this, we have used some criteria including the natural characteristics, compatible land use, incompatible land use, and communication network, which each criterion includes several sub-criteria. In the next step, the classification of sub-criteria has been reviewed according to the world standards, rules of the approved urban project and the authors analysis of city properties. Then, the information layers of sub criteria of each criterion are individually integrated in the GIS environment. Based on the importance coefficient, it is achieved by the analysis network process and again all maps of the 4 main criteria will overlap based on the significance of each factor in a GIS environment. Finally, the suitable location of the temporary settlement has been determined on the basis of global standards and urban management capacity.
This location is selected through the prioritization based on capacity and de facto and possible potential of urban management according to the type of landuse, ownership and utilization of equipment. Therefore, the first priority have been 16 places in the entire area and mainly including states, private landuse and natural resources that allocated total 405 hectares. These places generally have been the kind of green space, farms and gardens inside green space for the city located near the urban facilities. Therefore, urban management of Urmia can tackle these three priorities and places with regard to span of the city, crowds, old texture, and lack of access hierarchy for multipurpose. This city can also take advantage and use of them in crisis situationsby the earthquake for the establishment.