Political Geography as an Experimental Science

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, Univercity of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Candidate in Political Geography, Univercity of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 M.A. Student in Political Geography, Univercity of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


In a general division, “knowledge” can be considered in the broadest sense. Knowledge in general means consisting of a set of data and information, regardless of the subject, content and methodology, and it is comprised of all information. In English language, it is called knowledge. In a particular sense, the knowledge is said to the area that has experimentally testable characteristics, and can be called by the word “science”. Based on the principles of openness, many sciences such as philosophy, mathematics, literature, poetry, theology, logic, and so will be out of the realm of scientific knowledge. According to the positivists and philosophers of science and based on criteria of "meaning", experimental science is based on observation and testing. It has also the ability of proven and experience. Therefore, any testable knowledge is included in and proven scientific knowledge are in experiment knowledge and the knowledge without these characteristics of the test, can not be considered scientific knowledge. According to the philosophy of science, empirical knowledge is contained the following characteristics:
1. Empirical knowledge is based on observation and tests (test of knowledge and experience)
2. Empirical research has provided the assumptions.
3. Scientific explanations are always based on scientific theories and law.
4. Theories and scientific law are generally indicative of a stable order of objects.
5. Empirical knowledge is both proved and falsifiable.
6. The method of experimental science is selective.
Knowledge of geography and geopolitics as its branch described the systematic relations between human (policy) and geographical environment. Therefore, its history is related to the long life of the old man on the earth. The main question that arises here is: "Can we consider the political geography as an empirical knowledge among the experimental sciences?”
According to the hypothesis of this paper, geopolitical science because of having the characteristics of the six empirical knowledges is regarded among empirical knowledge.
The "hypothetical judgment" is based on the method of "induction" and "deduction" both.  We used textbooks and library resources and development of basic research.
Results and Discussion
In this regard, we see that all empirical sciences are evident in political geography. We can consider geopolitics as an experimental science, since any research in the field of political geography contained objective and previous experiences and can provide a legal framework to predict the future.
It does not mean that all the time we talk about past but to study and achieve a predictable outcome of the general law and practice should have a root in the past. However, there may be some reason in the present. But, we should use the past experience for analysis; reach a result and general law. Generally, we cannot ignore the past and everything has roots in the past. However, the causes will be variable during the times. Geopolitical events are based on this theory, too. The destiny of today and tomorrow people of every country are combined with their past. To achieve success, we must learn from the past experiences and mistakes.
The nature of geopolitics is examined in this paper. This study found that geopolitics is the current politic. The only difference with political science emphasize on the consequences of geography and the techniques of spatial analysis. Political geography as an academic discipline, keep up alongside other disciplines in science. In every debate about the politic of countries, political geography presented itself generally and specifically. To provide any definition of geopolitics and utter anything about it, whether domestic or foreign, it should analyze a series of the concepts and elements related to this notion, and perceive that without them there would be no political geography. In fact, we can use these concepts as elements of geopolitical component. According to the material presented in this study, we can emphasize on the fact that the political geography has evolved over times and is regarded as an experimental science in scientific circles. They called geopolitical science as knowledge and an empirical science with ancient roots. We concluded that geopolitics is an empirical science. Its dominated method is inductive method. However, in some cases, we also used a deductive method and it has a supporting role. The explanations are performed causal with a specific purpose.


Main Subjects

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