Measuring of tourists satisfaction of coastal tourist destinations in rural areas of Guilan Province

Document Type : Research Paper



Today world is full of changes and alterations, of most important changes made in extent of Business, change in offer‌able values to buyers that is known as main factor in organizations (Destinations) and chief organizations in any industry, its success to ability to supply quality products (valuable) to buyers in comparison with their competitors is know. In this regard, one of the marketing efforts is that customers not just today, but for future also buyer and others encourage to do (Koskela, 2002: 28). Research has shown that the quality and value of services received, plays an important role in satisfaction and consistent decisions (Lenoe et al, 2006: 208). With this description must be said that tourism is a mix of different activities That the chain of services to tourists encompass all phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction between tourists and host communities, governments and recruitment process and reception (Mcintosh and Charles, 1995: 9). Hence is that now one of the methods for measuring the efficiency of services and facilities in a tourist area is assessment of beneficiaries and consumers opinion (tourists) of these services. Indeed by attendance to right relation of tourists with created services and being needs in cities and region can be have effective role in measuring efficiency or shortages of being services (Rodriguez et al, 2006: 667). The significance of tourism and recreation is often most evident in the coast. Coastal tourism is the sum of activities relating to the travel and stay over by people visiting the coastal zone. Coastal tourism developments comprise developments and activities conducted upon land immediately adjacent to the shoreline, coastal wetlands, estuaries and tidal waters and associated marine waters. Tourist activities are considered coastal tourism activities when they are based on or utilize coastal or marine resources, either natural or manmade, or located within the coastal strip (TCMP, 2001, p.5). Therefore one of the important and basic factors in increasing the number of tourists in the areas is being of facilities and service quality requirements tourists. According to traditional attitudes to assess the quality characteristics of the goods or services was defined as a measure of quality, but the new management approach, the quality was defined as customer want. Clients or recipients of service, service quality are evaluated by comparing their expectations and perceptions of service received. Tourists as well as other customers, usually before visiting their tourist destination has the level of the expectations to services will receive in tourist centers. These expectations largely will engender by advertising, media and also informal information from acquaintances. Extent of these expectations, will be the basis for the satisfaction of tourists. While can meet the expectations of tourists, surely these people, will recommend visit of it area to others which that is the most effective way of marketing and advertising (Crosby, 1993; Soderlund, 1998). Based on the foregoing, this paper aims to measure of tourists’ satisfaction of coastal tourist destinations in rural areas of Guilan Province and as well as comparison mean tourists satisfaction of each destinations.

Research Methodology
paper method is descriptive- analytical. To assess the satisfaction of tourists from coastal rural areas tourist destinations of Guilan province in descriptive part has been used of library and quantitative methods (statistical) to analysis of field data. The data collection was done using a questionnaire. The statistical population this research is coastal tourists of Guilan Province, which according to the statistics organization's tourism of Gilan Province has been announced 15000000 people, with Cochran method 390 of them as the sample size was determined. In this paper tourism destinations is 10 safe building project which are located in 7 county. In each of project 39 tourists were questioned.

Results and discussion
Based on the results of the independent samples t-test, highest measured dimensions related to the satisfaction of the security services with mean of 2/409 and the lowest satisfaction is relevant to informing in coastal tourism destination with mean of 0/434. And other means to arrange from highest to lowest are as follows: Interaction with 2/123, coastal area with 2/074, transportation and access with 1/354, recreational facilities with 1/249, Welfare-catering facilities with 1/431 and management with mean of 0/945. It can be said that the rate of satisfaction is very little level.

Tourist literature shows that the overall satisfaction of tourists and the tourist intents to return to the point of destination is characterized by its assessment. In this regard, many studies have shown that the performance of a destination is determined with the analysis of expressed satisfaction by tourist of various aspects destination (Aleger & Clader, 2006; Baker & Crompton, 2000). The coastal is still a major destination for tourists, and tourism planners are trying to design and implement the requirements of tourists to the coast. And this planning and management of coastal tourism can be done more precisely by taking into account social and environmental systems and their relationship (Cachadi et al, 2002: 12). Therefore one of the important and basic factors in increasing the number of tourists in the areas is being of facilities and service quality requirements tourists. To compare the mean of satisfaction between 10 tourism destinations has been used of ANOVA. The amount of variance between groups according to (F) and the level of significance (sig) 0/000 shows that in forms of the variance there is significance difference between the mean of tourists satisfaction from coastal tourist destinations. The results of test of (Tukey), tourism destinations based on mean of satisfaction have been divided into 4 categories. According to the results of test, three project (Jefrod, Alalan and Darugar Mahalleh) are on the first category, where tourists have the lowest satisfaction from them, on the second category are three projects (Tazeh Abad, Anbarsar, Nilofare Saharkhiz). The third category has two projects (Abad and Haji Talib Bkndh) and on the fourth category are (Amin Abad and Gisum) with mean of 1/163 and 1/658.


Main Subjects

- بیک محمدی، حسن، 1385، سواحل جنوبی دریای خزر، مجله سپهر، دورة دوازدهم، شمارة 46.
- پاپلی یزدی، محمدحسین و مهدی صادقی، 1386، اکوتوریسم «طبیعت و مفاهیم»، انتشارات سمت، تهران.
- رضوانی، علی‌اصغر، 1382، جغرافیا و صنعت توریسم، چاپ پنجم، انتشارات دانشگاه پیام نور.
- سرایی، فریبا، 1378، پیامدهایزیست‌محیطیتوسعهتوریسم، محیط‌زیست، شمارة 29.
- صدرموسوی، میرستار و جواد دخیلی کهنموئی، 1386، ارزیابی وضعیت تسهیلات گردشگری استان آذربایجان شرقی از دید گردشگران، مجلة پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی، شمارة 61، صص 129- 143.
- طاهری دمنه، محسن، فرمانی، سکینه و رضا مستوفی‌الممالکی، 1390، بررسی چالش‌های موجود در وضعیت گردشگری شهر شیراز در ارتباط با محدودیت مراکز اقامتی، مجلة مطالعات و پژوهش‌های شهری و منطقه‌ای، سال دوم، شمارة 8، صص 117- 132.
- علاءالدینی، پویا و سیدعارف چینی، 1391، کیفیتخدماتورضایتمندیگردشگران(مطالعةموردی: مشتریانخارجیهتل‌هایچهاروپنجستارةایران)، فصلنامة راهبرد اجتماعی و فرهنگی، سال اول، شمارة 4، صص 87- 101.
- موسوی، میرنجف، ابراهیم‌زاده، عیسی، کاظمی‌زاده، شمس‌الله و حکیمه قنبری، 1392، تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر رضایت‌مندی گردشگران خارجی از کارکردها و زیرساخت‌های گردشگری، مطالعه موردی: شهر قم، مطالعات و پژوهش‌های شهری و منطقه‌ای، سال پنجم، شمارة 18، صص 69- 88.
- Beikmohammadi, H., 2007, The southern costals of the Caspian Sea, Sepehr Journal, Vol. 12, No. 46. (In Persian).
-Alaaddin, P. and Chini, S. A., 2013, The quality of services and satisfaction of tourists (Case study: foreign customers of four and five star hotels), Journal of Social and Cultural Strategy, Vol. 1, No. 4, PP. 87- 101. (In Persian)
-Alegre, J. and Cladera, M., 2006, Repeat visitation in mature sun and sand holiday destinations, Journal of Travel Research, 44(3), PP. 288–297.
-Arnould, E. J. and Price, L. L., 1993, River magic: Extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter, Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (1), PP. 24– 45.
-Bitner, J. M., 1990, Evaluating service encounters: The effects of Physical surroundings and employee responses, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54 (April), PP. 69- 82.
-Cachadi, F, Learenco, L, Lobo, F, Noronla, S., 2002, Coastal tourism environment and sustainable local development, London , TERI.
-Cadotte, E. R., Woodruff, R. B. and Jenkins, R. L., 1982, Norm and expectations predictions: How different are the measures?, in International Fare in Consumer Satisfaction and Complaining Behavior, R. L. Day and H. K. Hunt, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University.
-Chen, C. M., Lee, H. T., Chen, S. H., Huang, T. H., 2011, Tourist behavioral intention to service quality and customer satisfaction in Kinmen National Park, Taiwan, International Journal of Tourism Research, 13 (5), PP. 416- 432.
-Coastal Tourism Working Group: NOV, 2001, Tanzania coastal management partnership.
-Crosby, A. L., 1993, Measuring Customer Satisfaction, In Scheuing, E. E. and Christopher W. F. (Eds), The Service Quality Handbook, Amacom, New York.
-Del Bosque, R., Collado Agudo, J., San Martin, H., 2006, Determinants of economic and social satisfaction in manufacturer–distributor relationships, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol.35, pp. 666-675.
-Ferrario, F. F., 1979, The evaluation of tourists resources: An applied methodology, Journal of Travel Research, 17(3), PP. 18– 23.
-Hu, Y. and Richie, J. R. B., 1993, Measuring destination attractiveness: A conceptual approach, Journal of Travel Research, 32 (2), PP. 25– 34.
-Huang, M. C., 1998, Ab empircal study on the model of relationship value-loyalty for the banking industry,M.A Thesis, National YunLin University of Science & Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan.
-Kao, J. C., 1995, Leisure benefits for three factor patterns, Outdoors Amusement and Rest Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, PP. 15- 28.
-Koskela, H., 2002, Customer satisfaction and loyalty in after sales service, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Report No 21, HUT Industrial Management and Work and Organizational Psychology.
-Kotler, P., Bowen, J. and Makens, J., 1999, Marketing For Hospitality And Tourism, Prentice – Hall Inc, New Jersey.
-Kuo, Y. C., 1999, The study of job stress, job satisfaction, burnout, and leisure satisfaction among flight attendant, Unpublished MBA Thesis, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan, ROC.
-Leiper, N., 1990, Tourism system and interdisciplinary perspective, Massey University Printery, New Zealand.
-Mayo, E. J. and Jarvis, L. P., 1981, The Psychology of Leisure and Travel Behaviour, C.B.I; Massachusetts.
-McAlexander, J. H., Stephen, K. K. and Scott, D. R., 2003, Loyalty: The influences of satisfaction and brand community integration, Journal of Marketing, 11 (4), PP. 1- 11.
-Mcintosh, W. R. and Charles R. G., 1995, Tourism principles, practices, philosophies, John Wiley & Sons, United States Of American, John Wiley & Sons, Inc
-Miller, J., 1977, Exploring satisfaction, modifying models, eliciting expectations, posing problems and making meaningful measurements, In Hunt, H. K. (Ed.), Conceptualization and measurement of consumer satisfaction, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.
-Mousavi, M. N., Ebrahimzadeh, I., Kazemizadeh, S. H. and Ghanbari, H., 2014, Analysis of Effective factors on satisfaction of foreign tourists from tourism functions infrastructure, Case study: Qhom city, Urban and Regional Studies and Research, Vol. 5, No. 18, PP. 69- 88. (In Persian)
-Moutinho, L., 1987, Consumer behavior in tourism, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 10, PP. 1– 44.
-Oliver, R. L., 1997, Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer, McGraw Hill, New York.
-Papoli Yazdi, M. H. and Sadeghi, M., 2008, Ecotourism Nature and Implications, Samt published, Tehran. (In Persian)
-Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A. and Berry, L. L., 1994, Reassessment of expectations as a comparison standard in measuring service quality: Implications for further research, Journal of Marketing, Vol 58, PP. 120– 135.
-Pizam, A., Neumann, Y. and Reichel, A., 1978, Dimensions of tourism satisfaction with a destination area, Annals of Tourism Research, 5 (3),  PP. 314– 322.
-Rezvani, A. A., 2004, Geography and Tourism, 5th Ed, Published by payamnor univercity. (In Persian)
-Sadremosavi, M. and Dakhili Kahnodi, J., 1998, Evaluation of tourism facilities Azabayjan shaghi, Journal of Geographical Researchs, No. 61, PP. 129- 143. (In Persian)
-Saraee, F., 2000, The environmental consequences of tourism, Environment, No. 29. (In Persian)
-Soutar, J. N., 2001, Service quality, customer satisfaction and value: An examination of their relationships, In Kandampuly, J., Mok, C. and Sparks, B. (Eds), Service quality management in hospitality, tourism and leisure, The Haworth Press, New York.
-Taheri damneh, M., Farmani, S. and Mostofi Almamaleki, R., 2012, Survey the challenges of being in the city tourism relevance to accommodations limits, Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 2, No. 8, PP.117- 132. (In Persian)
-Tribe, J. and Snaith, T., 1998, From Servqual to Holsat: Holiday satisfaction in Varadero, Cuba. Tourism Management, 19 (1), PP. 25– 34.
-Westbrook, R. A., 1980, A Rating Scale for Measuring Product/Service Satisfaction, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 44 (Fall), PP. 68- 72.
-Woodside, A. G., Frey, L. L., & Daly, R. T. (1989). Linking service quality, customer satisfaction and behavioral intention. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 9(4), 5–17.
-Zarghami Boroujeni, H., 2011, Tourism development planning, 2nd Ed, Mahkameh published, Tehran.
Volume 49, Issue 3
October 2017
Pages 571-585
  • Receive Date: 14 March 2015
  • Revise Date: 13 March 2016
  • Accept Date: 14 March 2016
  • First Publish Date: 23 September 2017