Document Type : Research Paper
Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Professor, Department of of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Ph.D. Candidate in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Ensuring the sustainability of rural settlements in various aspects of economic, social, cultural, and political aspects depend on the posture and spatial distribution of these settlements. In this regard, careful and thorough study of understanding the spatial distribution of rural settlements is related to sustainability of rural settlements. Ecological resources (roughness, slope, geology, etc.) are important in spatial distribution and rural settlements. These factors also lead to the occurrence of natural events such as earthquakes, floods, storms and etc. These are the effects of instability in rural settlements. In this regard, several studies on the ecological role and importance are considering four factors including climate (Rainfall, temperature, humidity, winds), topography (elevation, slope, landform), soil (structure, depth, drainage, soil) and geology (soil and geological features).
These issues shaping the field of study about the analysis of the spatial distribution of rural settlements in Sabzevar-Neyshabur based on existing ecological resources. This area is located in the west of Khorasan Razavi Province and according to the 2011 census the population of the area is 387319 people that resides in 925 villages. The Purposes of this study is to examine the spatial distribution of rural settlements in Sabzevar- Neyshabur regions based on ecological resources. This study is going to answer the following issues:
The share of each of the different classes I (appropriate), II (intermediate) and III (inappropriate)
the distribution of rural settlements affected by ecological factors
Distribution of rural settlements in three suitable transitional and unsuitable zones
This study through library research and field observations, collects information and statistics and by the use of GIS and SPSS software. Hence, we have used administrative map, geological map, topographic scale of 1: 50,000, satellite images ETM, and some climate information. After collecting information from various sources, and the classes I (appropriate), II (intermediate) and III (inappropriate), based on study criteria, 12 persons, layers related to these criteria in GIS software made a lot of layer in each class. In this study, spatial analysis tools and overlap (overlay) tools (weighted overlay), are used and the criteria related to each by equally weighting layers are combined and output as the mapping of topography, climate, geology and soil. In the final step, using the tools of spatial analysis in the previous step in GIS, 4 layers are combined with equal weighting and zoning.
Results and Discussion
The results of the distribution (Table 6) show that the agents in the class I (appropriate), II (intermediate) and III (inappropriate), have the same distribution. The West region in terms of soil characteristics and geological conditions has a way that no adverse human settlements are formed.
Most parts of the South and South West areas are located in unsuitable zone, population studies and field studies indicate scattering of rural settlements, small population, an aging population, migration and lack of agricultural development in these areas.
About 49 percent of rural settlements are in a relatively favorable and unfavorable zone. To avoid instability in rural settlements, we are going to facilitate the movement toward sustainability and we have to use two ways:
Improving human factors (infrastructure, access, services, etc.) through correct planning and providing appropriate templates and designs, we also have natural limits to development as an opportunity. This also requires proper planning. Limitations of ecological factors in the region can be minimized by following methods.