Analysis of Human Habitat in Tehran Based on SoE

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MA in Environment, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor of environment, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate professor of environment, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 PhD candidate in urban planning, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran


The importance of urban environments as the main settlements for people is increasingly growing in recent years. High population density in urban areas has led to environmental degradation; therefore, special attention must be paid to habitat quality in these areas. Today, Tehran is high density and the largest human settlement on Iran plateau.  It has been established in one of the best natural and climatic conditions of Iran plateau. It seems that over two hundred years, environmental, natural and geographical conditions as well as ecosystems around the city have been changed in such a way that not only it cannot be considered as an integral part of its surrounding ecosystem, but it is even faced with many problems to provide human biological needs and social demands. DPSIR approach, which starts with a chain of causal linkages of "driving forces" (cause) through "pressure", i.e. pollutants, on logical "status" (physical, chemical, and biological) and the "effects", can eventually lead to "responses" (strategies) in ecosystems (structure and function). DPSIR was developed from PSR model by Europe Environment Agency (EEA). This was the most comprehensive model used to prepare environmental status reports (SoE). This model can be used via an applied approach as a tool to develop action and management plans. The purpose of this study is to identify the cause and effect chains as well as analyze the environment of human habitats in Tehran city using driving force, effect, status, pressure, and response model.
This was performed as an analytical descriptive study based on DPSIR model using library studies and statistical analysis in 2013. The framework (DPSIR) used in this study, as one of the causal-effect models, can determine driving force of most of human factors leading to an environmental problem. These factors were normally associated with socio-economic development and require use of environmental resources. Excessive use of resources has led to laying pressure on the environment, consequently changing the situation of environmental parameters. These changes led to adverse effects on human and ecosystem well-being. There is a need to offer appropriate responses from the community to resolve these changes. This study was a part of the second environmental situation report on Tehran city, in which the various components of the human habitat in Tehran city were analyzed using the DPSIR model. Using this conceptual framework, appropriate responses in terms of model components were presented. To achieve a quantitative approach for the analysis of cause-effect factors affecting the human habitat characteristics of Tehran, quantitative indicators were determined for each of the model components (DPSIR). To determine these parameters, literature review was applied and all indicators in the other metropolise habitats as well as similar documents were evaluated, then appropriate indicators were selected for each model component.
Results and discussion
The results of investigating the habitat components in Tehran city in form of driving force, effect, status, pressure and response (DPSIR model) indicated that the most important development features of Tehran city in recent times can be described as "rapid urbanization", as the development of the city over the last half century did not followed any discipline and in this viewpoint the city is regarded as an exception among the metropolises of the world. Accordingly, this can be considered as the root and driving forces of almost all environmental issues of the city. Under the direct influence of the driving force of rapid urbanization, pressure on ecological and natural resources of the city and its surroundings is high due to the high volume of urban travels and increasing waste and runoff production. However, the main driving force of the rapid urbanization is reflected in housing and construction, major land uses, situation of worn-out areas, transportation condition, green space, urban leisure centers and public health. Therefore, for all the variables assessed in this regard, despite having relatively positive trends, the city is not consistent with ideal standards. Also the most important effects of desirable and undesirable conditions of the major components of a habitat were reflected in two forms of pollutions and public health. The main effect of pollutions in Tehran city is air pollution, followed by water pollution, vision and perspective pollution, and noise pollution. In public health, mortality and general health indicators reflect the impact of adverse environmental conditions of the city on citizens. The response is adopted measures to reform the system and usually acts in the form of rules and control measures. Adopted responses were made in form of three parts including adopted policies and strategies, activities, and studies to present required policies and strategies for reform.
Population establishment and establishment of working centers as well as the activities associated with framework indiscipline (in the absence of effective regulations) were among the most effective indicators as the driving force of habitat in Tehran city. Among the most important responses in the form of adopted policies and strategies are: t publication of the first report on environmental situation o Tehran, approval of structural strategic comprehensive plan of Tehran city in 2008, approval of the detailed plan for Tehran city in 2009 and commitment to prepare practical plan of  Tehran Municipality, preparation of the report on environment status of Tehran, compilation of the atlas of Tehran,  formulation of a plan for organizing gardens and green spaces in Tehran, implementing several measures in response to increasing urban journeys to enhance public transportation. Despite the measures taken as responses, investigation and analysis carried out in the form of human habitat DPSIR model in Tehran suggests that the responses do not have efficiency and effectiveness because they did not focused on the driving forces. Therefore, environmental managers and planners in Tehran city need to focus on driving forces by revising their policies and plans in order to mitigate environmental issues.


Main Subjects

 آل محمد، سیده و دیگران، 1393، به‌کارگیری ارزیابی راهبردی محیط زیست به‌منظور تدوین سیاست‌های برنامة توسعة پایدار دریاچة ارومیه، فصلنامة محیط‌شناسی، سال چهلم، شمارة ۳، صص ۶۴۵-۶۶۷.
Alemohammad, S., et al., 2014, Using the strategic environmental assessment for compilation polices of Urmia lake Sustainable development plan, Journal of environmental studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, PP. 645-667.
 آمارنامة شهر تهران، 1389، سازمان فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات شهرداری تهران.
The statistics of Tehran, 2010, Tehran Municipality ICT Organization.
3. اطلس کلان‌شهر تهران، 1389، سازمان فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات شهرداری تهران.
Atlas of Tehran Metropolis, 2010, Tehran Municipality ICT Organization.
4. براتی، ناصر و الهام کاکاوند، ۱۳۹۲، ارزیابی تطبیقی کیفیت محیط سکونت شهری با تأکید بر تصویر ذهنی شهروندان (مطالعة موردی: شهر قزوین)، نشریة هنرهای زیبا، معماری و شهرسازی، سال هجدهم، شمارة 3، صص ۲۵-3۲.
Barati, N., Kakavand, E., 2013, Comparative Evaluation of the Environmental Quality of Residential Place with an Emphasis on Citizens' Image* (Case Study: Qazvin City), Honarhaye Ziba Memari va shahrsazi, Vol. 18, No. 3, PP. 25-32.
5. برنامة عملیاتی میان‌مدت شهرداری تهران (1390 تا 1392)، 1391، معاونت برنامه‌ریزی و توسعة شهری شهرداری تهران.
Tehran Municipality's midterm action plan (2011 to 2013), 2012, Tehran Municipality Department of Planning and Urban Development.
6. پژوهشکدة حمل‌ونقل طراحان پارسه، 1392، مطالعه و تعیین نظام محاسبة تعرفة بهینه و متناسب عوارض مالکیت خودرو در تهران بزرگ، ویرایش اول، شهرداری تهران.
Tarrahan Parseh Transportation Research Institute (TPTRI), 2013, determination of the optimum car toll Calculation order in tehran, Frist edition, Tehran Municipality.
7. پلیس راهور ناجا (گزارش آماری راهنمایی و رانندگی)، 1391.
Traffic Police of NAJA (the Traffic Statistical Report), 2012.
8. پلیس راهور ناجا (معاونت طرح برنامه‌وبودجه)،1390.
Traffic Police of NAJA (Assistance of Planning and budget), 2011.
9. دفتر صدور پروانه‌های ساختمانی شهرداری،1390.
Municipality's Building Licensing office, 2011.
10. رفیعیان، مجتبی و جمشید مولوی، ۱۳۹۱، رویکردها و روش‌های سنجش کیفیت محیط مسکونی شهری، چاپ اول، انتشارات آذرخش، تهران.

Rafieyan, M. and Molavi, J., 2012, the perceived quality of the urban residential environment, first edition, Azarakhsh Publication, Tehran.

11. سپهر، عادل، اختصاصی، محمدرضا و سید علی مدرسی، ۱۳۹۱، ایجاد سامانة شاخص بیابان‌زایی براساسDPSIR(بهره‌گیری از روش فازی- تاپسیس)، مجلة جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی محیطی، سال بیست و سوم، پیاپی ۴۵، شمارة ۱، صص ۲۳-۵۰.
Sepehr, A., Ekhtesasi, M. R., Almodaresi, S. A., 2011, Development of Desertification Indicator System Base on DPSIR (Take advantages of Fuzzy-TOPSIS), Geography and Environmental Planning, Vol. 23, No.1, PP.23-50.
12. سازمان ارتباط رادیویی (استعلام)، 1391.
The radio communication (inquiry), 2012.
13. سازمان بهشت‌زهرا (استعلام)، 1391.
The beheshte Zahra cemetery (inquiry), 2012.
14. سازمان ترافیک و حمل‌ونقل شهرداری تهران (استعلام)، 1390.
Tehran Municipality Traffic and Transportation Organization, (inquiry), 2011.
15. سازمان نوسازی شهر تهران (استعلام)، 1391.
 Urban Renewal Organization of Tehran (inquiry), 2012.
16. سالنامة آماری استان تهران، 1389، معاونت برنامه‌ریزی استان داری تهران.
Tehran statistical yearbook, 2010, Tehran Planning Department.
17. شرکت مطالعات جامع حمل‌ونقل و ترافیک شهرداری تهران (استعلام)، 1391.
Traffic studies Company of Tehran Municipality (inquiry), 2012.
 18. شمشیری، سجاد، ۱۳۹۱، تحلیل وضعیت باغات سراب قنبر کرمانشاه با استفاده از مدل DPSIR، فصلنامة مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی محیط زیست، سال دوم، شمارة ۴، صص 5-14.
Shamshiri, S., 2012, Situational Analysis of Sarab Qanbar Gardens of Kermanshah Using DPSIR Model, Environmental Management and Planninig, Vol.2, No.4, PP. 5-14.
19. طالبی، هوشنگ و علی زنگی‌آبادی، 1380، تحلیل شاخص‌ها و تعیین عوامل مؤثر در توسعة انسانی شهرهای بزرگ کشور، فصلنامة تحقیقات جغرافیایی، سال شانزدهم، شمارة 1، پیاپی 60، صص 143-168.
Talebi, H., Zangi Abadi, A., 2001, Analysis o Human Development Indices: Identifying The Contributing Factors in Big Cities, Geographical Research, Vol. 16, No.1, PP. 143-168.
20. صالحی، اسماعیل، 1386، نقش آسایش بصری و محیطی در پیشگیری از جرم، مجلة محیط‌شناسی، سال سی و سوم، شمارة 44، صص 85-106.
Salehi, E., 2007, The Prevention of Behavioral Abnormalities And The Role of Urban Spaces Comfort, Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol.33, No. 44, PP. 85-106.
21. صفی، مریم، ۱۳۹۰، مدل‌سازی و تصمیم‌گیری چندمعیاره جهت مدیریت منابع آب با استفاده از روش MULINO DSS، فصلنامة مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی محیط زیست، سال اول، شمارة ۲، صص 73-79.
Safi, M., 2011, Management and Multi-Criteria Decision Modeling of Water Resources Using The MULINO DSS, Environmental Management And Planning, Vol. 1, No. 2 PP.73-79.
22. طرح جامع شهر تهران، 1385، شهرداری تهران.
Comprehensive plan of Tehran, 2006, Tehran Municipality.
 23. عنابستانی، علی‌اکبر، ۱۳۸۷، گسل درونه و استقرار سکونتگاه‌های انسانی در منطقة کاشمر، فصلنامة پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی، سال چهلم، شمارة ۶۳، صص 193- 202.
Anabestani, A. A., 2008, The Daroneh Fault and Establishment of Human Settlements in the Region of Kashmar, Human Geography Reserch Quaterly, Vol. 40, No. 63, PP. 193-202
24. گزارش سالانة شهرداری تهران، 1389، به نقل از سازمان پارک‌ها و فضای سبز شهر تهران.
Tehran Municipality Annual Report, 2010. Tehran Parks and Green Space Organization.
25. گزارش وضعیت محیط زیست شهر تهران (SOE) (1377-1386)، 1390، مرکز مطالعات و برنامه‌ریزی شهر تهران.
Environmental Status Report of Tehran, 2011, Tehran Urban Reasearch and planning Center.
26. گزارش وضعیت محیط زیست شهر تهران (SoE)، 1392، مرکز مطالعات و برنامه‌ریزی شهر تهران.
Environmental Status Report of Tehran, 2013, Tehran Urban Reasearch and planning Center.
27. گزارش‌های ماهانة آلودگی هوای تهران، 1389، شرکت کنترل کیفیت هوای تهران.
Monthly reports of Tehran air pollution, 2010, Tehran Air Quality Control Company.
28. گزیدة آمار حمل‌ونقل و ترافیک تهران، 1386، شرکت مطالعات جامع حمل‌ونقل و ترافیک تهران.
Selections of Tehran Transport and Traffic Statistics, 2007, Tehran Comprehensive Transport and traffic Studies Co.
29. گزیدة آمار حمل‌ونقل و ترافیک تهران، 1389، شرکت مطالعات جامع حمل‌ونقل و ترافیک تهران.
Selections of Tehran Transport and Traffic Statistics, 2010, Tehran Comprehensive Transport and traffic Studies Co.
30. گزیدة نتایج سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن،1390، مرکز آمار ایران.
Selections of Population and housing census, 2011, Statistical Center of Iran.
31. محمدزادة اصل، نازی، امام‌وردی، قدرت‌الله و محمد سریرافراز، 1389، رتبه‌بندی شاخص‌های رفاه شهری مناطق مختلف شهر تهران، فصلنامة پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، سال اول، شمارة 1، صص 85-106.
Mohammadzadeh Asl, N., Emamverdi, Gh., and Sarirafraz, M., 2010, Welfare Indicators Ranking in Different Areas of Tehran City. Research and Urban Planning, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 85-106.
32. مجتهدی، احمد، ۱۳۷۵، نگرشی تحلیلی بر جغرافیای اجتماعی روستاهای ایران، فصلنامة پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی، سال سی و چهارم، شمارة ۴۲، صص 24-47.
Mojtahedi, A., 1996, Analytical Approach on Rural Social Geography of Iran, Geographical Research, Vol. 34, No. 42, PP. 24-47.
33. مدنی‌پور، علی و حمید زرآوند، ۱۳۸۱، ظهور یک کلان‌شهر، انتشارات پردازش و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، تهران.
Madanipoor, A., and Zaravand, H., 2002, The Emergence of A Metropolis,Pardazesh and Urban Planning Pub,Tehran.
34. مشیری، فرخ، ۱۳۹۰، رویکرد انسانی در جابه‌جایی سکونتگاه‌ها در برنامه‌های آبادانی منطقه‌ای، فصلنامة مسکن و محیط روستا، سال سی‌ام، شمارة ۱۳۵، صص 85-104.
Mashiri, F., 2011, Human Approach in Resettlement Planning in Regional Development Plans, Housing and Rural Environment, Vol. 30, No. 135, PP . 85-104.
35. وزیری، رؤیا، میرزایی، روح‌الله و محمدحداد سلیمانی، 1388، مقدمه‌ای بر آمار محیط زیست و چارچوب‌های بین‌المللی مربوط به آن، بررسی‌های آمار رسمی ایران، سال بیستم، شمارة 2، صص 271-288.
Vaziri, R., Mirzaee, R., and Soleymani, M. H., 2009, Introduction To Environmental Statistics and Its International Context, Iranian Journal of Official Statistics Studies, Vol. 20, No. 2, PP. 271-288.
Atkins, J. P., et al., 2011, Management of the Marine Environment: Integrating ecosystem services and societal benefits with the DPSIR framework in a systems approach, No. 62, PP. 215-226
Bidone, E. D. and Lacerda, L. D., 2004, The Use Of DPSIR Framework to Evaluate Sustainability In Coastal Areas. Case Study: Guanabara Bay Basin, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Regional Environmental Change, No. 4, PP. 5-16.
Camilleri, S., de Mendoza, A. P. H., and Gabbianelli, G., 2015, Multiple DPSI Frameworks For Support of Integrated Research: a Case Study of the Bahía De Cádiz Nature Park (Spain), Journal ofCoastal Conservation, Vol. 19, No. 5, PP. 677-691.
Chung, E. S., et al., 2011, Integrated Use of a Continuous Simulation Model and Multi-Attribute Decision-Making for Ranking Urban Watershed Management Alternatives,Water resources management, Vol. 25, No. 9, PP. 641-659.
De Stefano, L., 2010, International Initiatives for water policy assessment: a review, Water Resour Manage, Vol. 24, No. 11, PP. 2449–2466.
EEA.,1999, Environmental Indicators: Typology and Overview.
EEA., 2007,Halting the loss of Biodiversity by 2010: proposal for a first set of indicators to monitor progress in Europe. European Environment Agency.
Gabrielsen, P. and Bosch, P., 2003, Environmental Indicators: Typology And Use In Reporting, European Environment Agency
Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), European Environment Agency (EEA), 2001, The DPSIR Framework,Copenhagen.
Kagalou, I., et al., 2012, DPSIR Approach for an Integrated River Management Framework. A Preliminary Application on a Mediterranean Site (Kalamas River -NW Greece) Water Resour Manage, PP. 1677-1692.
Ness, B., Anderberg, S., and Olsson, L., 2010, Structuring Problems in Sustainability Science: The Multi-Level DPSIR Framework, Geoforum, Vol. 41, No. 3, PP. 479-488.
OECD, 1993, OECDEnvironmental Indicators for Environmental Performance Reviews, OECD, Paris.
Yu, G., et al., 2014, Diagnostic Model Construction and Example Analysis of Habitat Degradation in Enclosed Bay: I. diagnostic model construction, Vol. 32, No. 3, PP. 626-635.