Document Type : Research Paper
Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran
PhD Candidate in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran
Graduate Student of Geography and Rural Planning, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran
In the international literature, the interest for development and progress of rural societies has been highly increased as a strategy to improve the life condition, and is considered as the most important solution to solve the villagers’ problems. However, in the beginning of the 19th century, along with the beginning of the monotonous growth of population and urbanization procedure in the late 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, many of rural regions lost a majority of their population in advantage of small and big cities. One of the most important reason of this phenomena is decreasing the sense of belonging to the places in the rural regions. Place belonging shows the emotional relation of individuals toward geographic places. This relationship creates an emotional sense between the individual and his living place, while a type of belonging to the place is created in the individual due to these emotions. Therefore, one of the main basis for considering habitation stability and decreasing of immigration in rural planning and development is keeping the sense of belonging for the inhabitants of their living places. The belonging sense of everybody toward his living place and birth place may lead to significant growth effects on the rural society, which causes high quality environments in the rural regions. On the other hand, regarding the old history of most villages, the physical texture of most villages is old, which is in proportion to the economical, social, cultural, and technical conditions of those days. Obviously, regarding the evolutions of life conditions villages during time, the old texture does not coordinate with the necessities of the new life, which leads to decreasing life quality in these areas.
The presents paper is considered as a practical study regarding the method, and analytical-descriptive regarding the method, while the data are gathered through two methods of field and documentary. The measurement tool of this study is questionnaire (structured and non-structured). The target society includes family heads of village of Neh Rural District in the central part of Nehbandan Township (N=12291). 344 families were randomly selected using Coceran Method (24 villages). In the first stage, the sense of belonging to place among the statistical samples are evaluated using T-test to analyze data. Then, Variance Analysis (ANOVA) is analyzed to evaluate the liner relationship between sense of belonging to place as the independent variable, as well as space and physical reconstruction as the dependent variable. Finally, the multi-purpose regression and way analysis are used to evaluate the effect of sense of belonging to the place based on the indicators of emotional belonging, place identity, social linkage, as well as perception and behavior on the space and physical reconstruction. The pretest was taken from a sample including 95 questionnaires to assess the stability.
Results and discussion
Evaluating the amount of sense of belonging to place among the families of the target region in respect of four aspects show the high amount of place belonging in all target aspects. In such way that the effects of four aspects of sense of belonging to the place among families lead to the amount of villagers’ staying in their villages, preferring to live in villages rather than cities, having properties in their living place, prejudice toward the village and try to removing of village’s need thereby. One of the most important reasons for this is having close relations in their living place, having memory of there, passing childhood in the village, existing social values such as relations’ graves, racial and relational interactions among inhabitants, which lead to increasing the sense of belonging to the place in their living place. Evaluating the linear relationship between place belonging and space and physical reconstruction show there is a completely significant coherence between independent variable and dependent variable. In such way that sense of belonging to the place has led to increasing construction. Evaluating the effect of sense of belonging to the place in space and physical reconstruction show the amount of significance is less than 0.01 for all variables. In addition, the values of BETA show one change unit on standard deviation in aspects of emotional belonging, place identity, social linkage, perception and behavior leads to change in the variable of space and physical reconstruction 0.179, 0.157, 0.189 and 0.135 respectively in the sample villages among the target area. It leads to increasing rural housing quality, improvement of rural foundation, reforming of rural texture, and passage network in the religion.
Regarding the old history of most villages is in proportion to the economic, social, cultural and technical conditions of those days, which has a high damageability, and transformed to one of the main subjects, problems and disorders as well low quality of houses in the region. However, in case of those families, which have more sense of belonging to their living places, they established new constructions, which lead to change of physical and environmental. Therefore, in this study, the sense of belonging to the place in respect of space and physical reconstruction in the habitants of Neh Rural Districts are evaluated. The results of research in respect of assessing and evaluating the amount of sense of belong to space and space and physical reconstruction in villages of Neh Rural districts of Nehbandan Township show the high amount of sense of place belonging in all of target indicators. Results show that the sense of place belonging among rural families in the target region leads to staying of the population in the rural areas, which motivates people to comprehensively recover and reconstruct their home and local environments.