The Obstacles to Achieve a Clean City Based on Garbage Collection Using Grounded Theory (Case Study: Rasht)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Literature, University of Guilan, Iran

2 PhD Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran


The city and urbanization is a prominent social process that has changed the interaction between human and the environment and other people. The city is not a fully independent and autonomous complex phenomenon, but it is a part of the social and economic structure and manifestation of the complex that has formed in accordance with the socio-political changes from the past to the present. Therefore, discussion about city is not limited only to its physical development and it must be recognized that the city is complicated phenomenon and engaged with various issues. Garbage generated in cities is one of the most important challenges in urban planning and in achieving a healthy city and consequently the clean city. In fact, urbanization has led to rapid social and economic development and at the same time emerged many problems such as the concentration of population, traffic jams, lack of housing, lack of resources, loss of biodiversity, the effects of heat islands, noise and air and water pollution. Urban cleanliness as one of the most important criteria to achieve a healthy city has recently been a special place in the literature of urban studies and occasionally a number clean world are introduced by international organizations. Since the formation, garbage is involved with important issues such as collection, recycling, disposing style and location of disposing. The issue of garbage collection from the cities can be studied in relation to urban cleanliness because they are directly affected by the face of the city and negligence in this area creates many problems in urban space. Addition to technical issues, it is involved with social, economic, cultural, and management problems and it can be useful to identify them and rank them. This paper aims to study the bottlenecks in garbage collection in the Rasht city via qualitative methods using Grounded Theory.
In this paper, grounded theory method is used to identify the obstacles of accessment of the clean city in Rasht. Grounded Theory is a qualitative research method to study social processes in human interaction. This method developed by Glaser and Strauss, is rooted in the school's interpretation of symbolic interactionism. This method is a kind of research that examines and describes phenomena in their natural position. It involves a five-step process: first step is research design (technical literature review and select items), second phase is data collection, third stage is the setting and writing data items and concepts, fourth stage is analysis of the data (the original investigation) and the fifth stage is design and validation of the model. The purpose of the research project is questions and research area. Based on purposeful and theoretical sampling, 48 citizens were selected. Techniques used for data collection are focused on semi-structured interviews and field observations. Interviews are continued until theoretical saturation stage.
Results and discussion
The findings were analyzed in three coding stages and analysis units. The results of coding, as the first stage of data analysis, contain the 114 codes that were extracted from interviews with citizens. Up to16 concepts expressed from master codes and other codes directly from the person being interviewed. In axial coding process, we identified several extensive concepts with data analysis that formed 14 extensive classes. Based on the Grounded Theory, data coding was done in three stages and, as a result, five nuclear issues are extracted as the factors related to the social and cultural, economic, infrastructure, management and rules. Therefore, by analyzing the results of the extensive concept, five core subjects of social, cultural, economic, infrastructural and legal issues were identified as effective factors in achieving clean city in Rasht.
Citizenship principles such as respect for urban cleanliness are one of the important indicators of community mental health. In this principle, both law and tradition have a strong role. Another factor in this context can be cited as the lack of necessary life skills for people who have not received adequate training in their educational process. The people's attitude to life and level of education and their conception of the life are affected on the rights and duties of citizenship, such as trash issue. Another effect is a feeling of not belonging; when a person does not have a sense of belonging to the community, does not feel responsible. Other factor affecting urban cleanliness besides the infrastructure S is the level of urban cleanliness. If the city as a whole unit is not clean, citizens will feel that their garbage make this mess and this is very inconsiderable. Thus, they do not feel bad dropping garbage in the city. Therefore, the main factors to achieve clean city can be summarized in social, cultural, economic, infrastructural, administrative and statutory factors. These factors, according to the results of research, are the most important factors affecting Rasht to be a clean city. Overall formation of clean city and Continuity of cleanliness in the city, in its various dimensions, have some pre-requisites, that in case of failure of their condition in the one hand and the lack of continuity can reduce the efficiency of the initial conditions of its creation on the other hand. Lack of urban infrastructure in the Rasht city, in relation to the principled collection, led to the loss of opportunity in the field of citizen participation development. The economic problems can increase the dimension on their reluctance. Accordingly, the citizens are encountered with the contradictions on the path of citizenship education of good behavior, who find themselves alone in these areas. As a result, this leads to a kind of apathy even among committed citizens. This makes planning related to social and cultural promotion of citizens ineffective and the managers have to adopt peaceful behavior in the face of polluted urban spaces. 


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Volume 50, Issue 3
October 2018
Pages 773-790
  • Receive Date: 02 October 2016
  • Revise Date: 30 April 2017
  • Accept Date: 30 April 2017
  • First Publish Date: 23 September 2018