Assessment of Spatial Equity Index in Tourism Villages (Case Study: East Azerbaijan Province)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran

2 Lecturor in Art & Architecture, University of Bonab, Bonab, Iran

3 PhD Candidate in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran


Paying attention to the approach of spatial equity in distribiution of land use in any community, and the way of which the citizens take advantage, represents the social, economic and environmental development. The necessity of paying attention to spatial equity in distribiution of land use in touristic villages in comparison with Nontouristic areas is of great importance, because these areas have a great potential for comprehensive development and especially the development of rural areas. This factor has doubled the necessity of paying attention to spatial equity in these villages. Actually, the use of land and space as a public resource and public wealth is crucial in tourism villages which should be based on scientific principles of land use planning. East Azarbaijan provience due to climatic and cultural diversity and also because of its historical background contains numerous touristic villages. Despite all these features, due to mismanagement and lack of optimal allocation of resources and services, they are exposed to a numerous problems such as lack of service centers, lack of green spaces and lack of compatibility of land use for the welfare and requirements of tourists. Given the importance and sensitivity of spatial equity in tourism villages, this research seeks to answer the following basic questions:
- To what extent the spatial equity is considered in spatial distribiution of land use in touristic villages of East Azerbaijan province?
- How great is the correlation between geographic conditions and spatial equity in touristic villages of East Azerbaijan province?
- How can we prioritize touristic villages of the province in terms of spatial equity?
- What are the suggested guidelines for the optimal distribiution of land use and achieving spatial equity?
This is a descriptive-analytic research. Data have been collected in document and survey methods. Review and selection of reseach variables, theoretical framework and research backgrounds is conducted using documental method. we have investigated 42 variables of residentail, cultural-religious, communicational, educational, hygience, physical, structural-institutional and service dimensions in this research. In surveys, the data related to land use of touristic villages of the province were derived from Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation, the Cultural Heritage Organization of the provience, and Iran's statistics center. Delphi technique is used to determine the weight of functions. Then, the list of functions were given to 30 of urban planners (including academics and experts of Housing Foundation and the Cultural Heritage Organization). After analysis of the comments, the weight of functions were extracted. The study population is 48 touristic villages of East Azerbaijan provience.  They are tourism target villages and the best touristic destinations according to the rules and regulations of the Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation and Cultural Heritage Organization. Vikor model was used to perform the analysis, after calculating the gap between current and ideal situation. The one way ANOVA analysis test and Duncan's post hoc test are used to evaluate the difference between different functions. The cluster analysis test is used for grading and finally the multivariate regression test is used to explain the changes of this index.
Results and discussion
According to the results of Vikor model, the biggest gap with the amount of 0.829 is for 8 variables related to the touristic services functions. Also residential indexies with the amount of 0.162 are in the best situation of spacial justice. The highest amount of frequency is about the suitable situation with the amount of 45.5%. Also the results of statistical tests shows that there is a correlation between population, beneficary index, fullfilment of guide plans and the typology of village with the amount of spacial justice in touristic villages.
The results of Vikor test showed that the lowest gap of spatial equity is related to the villages of Ina Lu (0.150), Savar (0.276) and Darband (0.293) in residential and street network functions. In addition, the largest gap is related to the villages of Kandovan (0.475), Bezujiq (0.463), Lighavan (0.415) and Oshtabin (0.412). According to the results of cluster analysis 19.6% of the villages in terms of spatial equity are in very low level, 16.4% are in low level,  17. 2% are in intermediate level and only 45.5% are in high level and 1.3% are in very high level. The results of correlation analysis showed that only the variables of the civil projects in form of rural guide plans, possessing index and type of village have a significant correlation with the dependent variable.
Due to the need for spatial equity in distribiution of land use in touristic villages, this research aimed to analyze the spatial equity in land use in touristic villages of East Azerbaijan provience. The results showed that only 3% of villages are in good and very good condition in terms of spatial equity. Therefore, based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that there are the need to understand the demands and needs of villagers and tourists before creating functions and also the number of tourists entering the village and also their economic and social characteristics. It is required to pay more attention to rural green spaces, rural passways, parks and open sport spaces. There is a need for serious attention to the completion of rural guide plans in villages and disregarding this plans can reduce efficiency in the environmental variables in rural land uses. Adopting comprehensive and integrated approach in the management of land use in touristic villages can be helpful for the management. It is required to integrate system approach in land use management in tourist villages. The officials and planners have to rely on management strategies to create more gaps between different applications.


Main Subjects

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