Informal Life and Relationship between the Seizure Security and the Quality of Life, Boomhen, Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor of Social Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Candidate in Political Sociology, Tehran, Iran


Urban issues cannot be solved simply by technical and engineering methods. The urban issues are very complex and require a multi-facet and equally complex approach. Social exclusion and space issues such as marginalization, informal economics, informal settlements, slumming, problematic textures, worn-out texture, and etc. are the urban issues well understood by the common sense of the concepts of city and space collapse.  
Despite the existing laws, plans, and studies carried out over the past decades, we are witnessing the expansion and intensification of social and spatial exclusion. Urban fringes are no longer physically marginalized, but they can also be seen in urban centers. Capital accumulation at one point is necessarily accompanied by impoverishment at another point. These are interconnected internally. Consequently, poverty and urban inequality are not the phenomena like what we usually know. Poverty and spatial inequality are the inevitable phase of the capitalist mode of production. 
Today, urban issues resulted from the powerful process of capital, have a decisive role in everyday life of humans. The global urbanization process, as its global trait is no longer limited to some cities in some countries. Now all countries and cities are involved in this process.
The growth of urbanization and the fear of its maladaptive phenomena in different areas, especially in large cities in metropolises, have forced urban planners to embrace new social orientations and trends to strengthen social considerations in urban studies. One of these tendencies with a tremendous impact on the evolution of the views and methods of urban planning in the second half of the 20th century was social theory and attention to the quality aspect of development. These elements today consolidated its position in terms of quality of life and social welfare. One of the main goals of addressing the quality of life is to achieve human security in its general sense.
This research has a descriptive-analytic approach. This research has been conducted by library and field method. In order to formulate theoretical basis of the researches, we have used available statistics and documents including statistics in urban plans related to the Ouzoon Tapeh neighborhood and population census statistics. In order to collect data from the field study area, we have used a questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed in the research process based on the goals and theoretical framework. For data analysis, we have employed statistical analyses including factor analysis (for statistical structuring and determination of superior factors), scaling (for questionnaire items), and Pearson correlation and regression statistical techniques for relationships among the variables.    
Results and discussion
While private-sector is the key provider of housing for most people, government action is needed to support the activities such as providing roads, sewage, water, regionalization controls, public transportation, and environmental standards. Government action also regulates what makes housing including construction standards, health and safety regulations, height restrictions, and planning controls. However, the government also intervenes cautiously in regulating the profitable private financing.
As the political focus on housing is in highest level and housing and economic conditions are deteriorating, there is an opportunity to cultivate a progressive housing movement that can bring low-income and middle-income tenants and landowners around their shared interest in desirable housing. What we need is a plan that can change the current state of the debate on housing. An efficient plan for housing should challenge the nature of housing markets and their role in our economic and social system to meet the needs of people's legitimate housing through an alternative approach.
The purpose of such an alternative program can be stated as follows: providing affordable housing with appropriate proportions and desirable quality, with security, located in a supportive neighborhood for all individuals, and for all groups of community. A second strategy for the commoditization of housing can be an attempt to limit the role of profit in decisions affecting housing, instead of replacing the fundamental principle of social need. Another point is that the ideological core of the discourse of the new housing policy is that all income groups have their own segments in the housing market.


Main Subjects

  1. اعتصامی‌پور، محسن، 1381، ساماندهی فضایی-کالبدی سکونت‌گاه‌های غیررسمی: مطالعۀ موردی: شهرک سعدی شیراز، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد دانشکدۀ هنر و معماری دانشگاه شیراز.
  2. بهادری، جواد، 1386، دسته‌بندی عملکردی سیاست‌های اجرایی توانمندسازی اسکان غیررسمی و کاربرد عملی آن در شهرک سعدی شیراز، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه شیراز، دانشکدۀ هنر و معماری.
  3. ترکمه، آیدین، 1395، تحلیل نظام برنامه‌ریزی شهری در پیوند با مسئلۀ غیررسمیت، بخشی از یک طرح مطالعاتی، منتشرنشده.
  4. شیخی، محمدتقی، 1394، جامعه‌شناسی کیفیت زندگی، نشر حریر، تهران.
  5. علی‌اکبری، اسماعیل و مهدی امینی، 1389، کیفیت زندگی شهری در ایران، رفاه اجتماعی، سال 1389، شمارۀ 36 صص 121-148.
  6. لاکویان، آپرودیسیو، ۱۳۶۴؛ خانه‌سازی در جهان سوم، ترجمۀ مینو رفیعی، وزارت برنامه‌وبودجه کشور، تهران.
  7. نجاتی هریس، حبیب، 1385، بهبود کیفیت زیست در اسکان‌های غیررسمی با استفاده از راهبرد توانمندسازی اجتماعات محلی (محلۀ خلیل‌آباد تبریز)، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد شهرسازی دانشکدۀ هنر و معماری دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.
  8. هاروی، دیوید، 1376، عدالت اجتماعی و شهر، ترجمۀ فرخ حسامیان و همکاران، شرکت پردازش و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، تهران.
    1. Bassett E. M., 2005, Tinkering with Tenure: The Community Land Trust Experiment in Voi, Kenya, Habitat International, Vol. 1, No. 29, PP. 375–398.

10. De Souza, F. A. M., 1999, Land Tenure Security and Housing Improvements in Recife, Brazil, Habitat International, Vol. 1, No. 23, PP. 19–33.

11. Marcuse, P., 2012, A Critical Approach to Solving the Housing Problem, In Cities for People not for Profit, Critical Urban Theory and the Right to the City, Routledge, PP. 215-230.

12. Porio, E., and Crisol, Ch., 2004, Property Rights, Security of Tenure and the Urban Poor in Metro Manila, Habitat International, Vol. 1, No: 28, PP. 203–219.

13. Segal, S. P., and Baumohl, J., 1988, No Place Like Home: Reflections on Sheltering a Diverse Population', In C. J.

14. Mcfarlane, C., 2012, Rethinking Informality: Politics, Crisis and the City, Planning Theory and Practice, Vol. 13, No. 1, PP. 89-108.

15. Uitermark, Justus, 2012, An Actualy Existing Just City? in Cities for People Not for Profit, Critical Urban Theory and the Right to the City, Routledge, PP. 197-214.

16. UN-Habitat UN-HABITAT, 2006, State of the Word Cities, London, Eartscan.