An Explanation of Inequalities and Ranking in Universities of Tehran toward Sustainable Development

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD in Education Management, University of Tehran

2 Associate Professor of Educational Management, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

3 Professor of Educational Management, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

4 Associate Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Development of higher education in the recent years makes it necessary to ensure quality in evaluation of universities. The importance of the evaluation is that it can determine the realities. Education assessment is a formal activity to determine the quality and efficiency of curriculum. To measure the quality, we have to consider the criteria and indices. The indices and criteria are numerical values representing qualitative attributes in numbers. The numerical indices were used as a mechanism for efficiency analysis to assess the universities. This is the task of the governments to show and eliminate the inequalities in education. Equal education opportunities in schools mean equal access of all to the efficient education for sustainable development. The education for sustainable development is learning based on some principles with the aim of sustainability in all levels. Thus, the purpose of this present research is to make a ranking of the universities of Tehran City using document indices. 
This is an applied research with survey method for data gathering. The population of this study is all the students of the universities of Tehran City. Using Cochran, we have selected 383 individuals by proportional classes and distributed questionnaires among them. The tool has Cronbach alpha quotient of 0.951 and its reliability and validity have been confirmed. We have used SPSS for data analysis. The Analytic Network Process model has also been used to prioritize the indices and TOPSIS to make the ranking of the universities. In the TOPSIS analysis as a multi-criteria decision making, an m*n matrix has been formed and the indices and universities have been assigned in the columns and rows. Following the scale changes, the weights of indices have been determined by entropy. After that, we got positive and negative ideal solutions. The differences of the universities from the ideal indicate their position relative to each other. 
Results and discussion
In this research, the universities of Tehran City have been assessed in terms of the indices of higher education. The results of this research have indicated difference among the universities in the enjoyment in the indices. In the integration of the indices, the results have indicated that the Sharif University of Technology, University of Tehran, and Tarbiat Modares University are ranked first, second, and third, respectively. This ranking is mainly consistent with international reports. In two classes of universities of technology and comprehensive universities, the results of this research have indicated that Sharif, Amierkabir, and Science and industry are in the first, second, and third ranks among the universities of technology, respectively, and University of Tehran, Tarbiat Modares, and Shahid Beheshti are ranked in the first, second, and third ranks among the comprehensive universities. The results have stated that the possibilities have the efficiency of 0.88, process indices of education have efficiency of 0.79, and environment and interaction indices have the efficiency of 0.69 as the most effective indices in the ranking. These have also been detailed in direct and indirect effects. 
Education is considered as the most important means to equalize social differences. The equal education only can be achieved by equal access of all to the education. The ranking of the universities can show education and research achievement of the universities. An approach in the ranking of the universities is awareness of their position relative to other universities of the world. As the universities active in a given mission are compared with each other, their position would better be discerned. This study has assessed the inequalities of the universities of Tehran in two groups of technology and comprehensive universities. This study has also made a ranking to eliminate the inequalities in order to achieve the sustainable development goals. For the ranking, we have analyzed more than 500 components in a variety of indices not just research findings indices. 


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