Analysis of the role of inter-agency Synergy in Urban regeneration by Using the Network Analysis Approach (Case study: district 8 of Shiraz municipality)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Lecturer/ Shiraz university

2 assistant professor of Geography and Urban Planning , Sistan & Baluchestan University

3 Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Guilan University

4 Associate Professor of Economics, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Extended Abstract:
The urban management system is successful when its management bodies can coordinate and collaborate between their separate and independent units as well as among other management bodies. In this regard, the synergy approach is considered as one of the results of governance and basis of integrated urban management. Considering the problems of urban decline in the district eight of Shiraz municipality and the ineffectiveness of the plans to reduce these problems, this study seeks to investigate the institutional setting of the regeneration as a step towards the reduction of urban decline in this historical area. The purpose of this study is to examine the interagency synergy related to the regeneration institutions of the case area in order firstly to get an accurate understanding of the status of the relationships of relevant institutions with each other and also, the problems of co-ordination of trustee institutions will be examined.

The Eight Municipality of Shiraz, known as the historical-cultural district of the city, today faces various social, economic, physical and environmental problems and suffers from the phenomenon of urban decline, so over the past few years, there have been numerous studies and programs to reduce the urban decline and redevelopment of the region. However, the programs presented have not been realized in many cases or have not been successful in practice. Several factors are involved in the failure to implement urban regeneration plans in this area but one of the important factors in this regard has always been the weakness of the institutional framework in managing and organizing such plans. Reproduction projects show that existing studies often focus on physical problems and institutional framework for the realization of regeneration and the effective factors in managing this approach has been very little considered. Therefore, this research attempts to reduce the urban decline in the historical region by studding the institutional framework and, in particular, the institutional relationship in urban regeneration.
This research answers the following questions:
Question 1: Are relationships between the trustee organizations of regeneration effective enough to regenerate the historical area of Shiraz?
Question 2: Is there a significant relationship between institutional synergy indicators?
Question 3: What are the problems of interagency synergy in related to regeneration of the case regional?

The present research has a theoretical-practical nature and has been done through descriptive-analytic method. Required data were collected using questionnaires and interviews. The statistical population of the study includes managers, staff and members of active institutions in the case area, which play a role in regenerating the area. The network analysis method has been used to analyze the data of the questionnaire in order to examine the pattern of interrelationship between the relevant institutions of regeneration and by using the UCINET software; the Institutional Network metrics were extracted. Also, by analyzing the qualitative content of the findings from the interviews, interagency synergistic problems were identified.

Results and discussion
• Evaluation of Institutional Indicators of regeneration
a. Density: The density at the total level of the partnership link is 32.7%. This amount is 41% in the trust network and 28.2% in the information network.
b. Measure of reciprocity: This indicator indicates the number of cross-links available to the number that should exist. In this regard the municipality organization has a partnership, trust and more informed communication with other recreational institutions (85%, 65%, and 80%).
c. Measure of Transitivity: The Measure of Transitivity of the trust network is 25.36%, the transitivity in the participation network is 22.22% and in the information network is 17.85%. It means that, as much as these rates, it is possible to create the participation of each actor with the third actor, the trust of each actor to the third actor, and the availability of information resources to each third party.
d. Centrality Degree: Network centrality based on internal links in related to participation is 49% which shows the authority and influence of the central institutions in the network. Based on the centrality degree of the internal links of the partnership network, the reputation of the central institutions in this network is 49%. Central institutions have received a lower level of trust from other institutions (32.5% based on internal links) and also have a lower level of trust to other actors in the network (22% based on external links). The degree of centrality across the entire information network, based on external and internal links, is both 35 percent that is similar and shows that the level of influence of central actors in this network is less than average in terms of reputation and authority.
- Investigating the Relationship between synergy indicators: The significance level of correlation between the two links of trust and participation is zero (sig= 0.001), which indicates that the correlation of the two links is significant. Also there is significant relationship between participation as independent variable and information as dependent variables.
-Recognition the issues of inter-institutional synergy in the regional regeneration network
Interviews were conducted to identify problems faced by institutional synergy. Some of the factors contributing to the institutional synergy that were extracted from the interviews are as follows:
- Coordination mechanisms
- Conflict of interest and attitude
- Legal arrangements
- Centrality

. The following mechanisms can improve the conditions for improving institutional coherence in the regional regeneration network:
- Increasing the implementation of inter-agency agreements and adopting legal requirements in this area.
- Establishing regulations to oblige institutions to coordinate and work together
- Establishment of intelligent information system, registration of documents and approvals for the transfer of inter-organizational information and strengthening of institutional relations in the fields of information acquisition and thematic knowledge of the region.
- Organizing regular working groups and specialized councils and actively participating institutions


Main Subjects

  1. احمدی، علی‌اکبر و فیض‌آبادی، حوریه (1390). بررسی ارتقای سرمایة اجتماعی بر بهبود عملکرد سازمان (نمونة موردی: سازمان‌های ستادی شهرداری تهران)، فصل‌نامة مدیریت دولتی، 3(۶): 35-88.
  2. ایزدی، پگاه؛ هادیانی، زهره؛ علی، حاجی‌نژاد و قادری، جعفر (1396). بازآفرینی شهری با تأکید بر شناسایی و تحلیل خوشه‌های خلاق فرهنگی، فصل‌نامة اقتصاد و مدیریت شهری، 5(۱۸): 21-40.
  3. ایزدی، پگاه (1396). ارائه و تبیین الگوی بازآفرینی شهری با تأکید بر رویکرد فرهنگ مبنا؛ مطالعة موردی: بافت تاریخی- فرهنگی شهر شیراز، رسالة دکتری، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان.
  4. باستانی، سوسن و رئیسی، مهین (1390). روش تحلیل شبکه: استفاده از رویکرد شبکه‌های کل در مطالعة اجتماعات باز، مجلة مطالعات اجتماعی ایران،  5(۲): 32-59.
  5. پیران، پرویز؛ رفیعیان، ‏مجتبی؛ رضایی، میثم و دهقان، هما (1395). شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر ایجاد نهادهای اجتماعی در مدیریت هر چه بهتر محلات؛ نمونة موردی: محلات واقع در شهر فردوسیه‌- شهرستان شهریار، نشریة پژوهش و برنامهریزی شهری، 7(۲۵): 1-22.
  6. چلبی، مسعود (1373). تحلیل شبکه در جامعه‌شناسی، فصل‌نامةعلوم اجتماعی،  2(5 و 6): 9-48.
  7. حسام، مهدی و رضوانی، محمدرضا (1393). بررسی وضعیت حمایت مالی کسب و کارهای گردشگری روستایی از یکدیگر با رویکرد تحلیل شبکه (مطالعة موردی: رستوران‌های روستاهای محور هراز، بخش لاریجان، شهرستان آمل)، مجلة پژوهش و برنامهریزی روستایی، ۴(۱۰): 127-142.
  8. حسن‌زاده ، محمد؛ علیپور ایرانق، سکینه و زندیان، فاطمه (1393). بررسی رابطه بین سرمایة اجتماعی و تسهیم دانش در مراکز ملی اطلاعات ایران، مجلة تعامل انسان و اطلاعات،  1(۱): 27-43.
  9. خطیبی، سیدمحمدرضا (1394). کاربرد فرایند برنامه‌ریزی اختیار راهبردی به‌عنوان رهیافتی در برنامه‌ریزی تجدید حیات شهری در سامان‌دهی الگوهای رفتاری شهروندان،‏ مطالعة موردی: خیابان سپه قزوین، اولین خیابان طراحی‌شدة ایران)، پژوهشهای جغرافیای انسانی، 47(۳): 439-450.
  10. دستمالچی، سعید و وزوایی، سعید (1390). اتخاذ استراتژی مناسب در افزایش هم‌افزایی در سازمان‌های هلدینگ، کنفرانس سازمانهای هلدینگ (کارکردها و چالشها)، مرکز همایش های رازی.
  11. رابرتز، پیتر و سایک، هیو (۱۳۹۳). بازآفرینی شهری، ترجمة محمدسعید ایزدی و پیروز حناچی، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
  12. رضائیان، علی (1381).‏ مبانی مدیریت رفتار سازمانی، چ ۳، تهران: سمت.
  13. رمضانی، ابوالفضل و میرزامحمدی، علی (1392). تحلیل شبکه‌های اجتماعی به همراه آموزش نرم‌افزار Ucinet، ‏تهران: نشر جامعه‌شناسان.
  14. سازمان آمار نفوس و مسکن، آمارنامة سرشماری نفوس و مسکن (1390).
  15. فرجی راد، خدر و کاظمیان، غلام‌رضا (1392). توسعة محلی و منطقهای از منظر رویکرد نهادی، تهران: سازمان انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی.
  16. قربانی، مهدی؛ آذرنیوند، حسین؛ مهرابی، علی‌اکبر؛ باستانی، سوسن؛ جعفری، محمد و نایبی، هوشنگ (1391). تحلیل شبکة اجتماعی: رویکردی نوین در سیاست‌گذاری و برنامه‌ریزی مدیریت مشارکتی منابع طبیعی، مجلة منابع طبیعی ایران، 65(۴):  553-568.
  17. مشکینی، ابوالفضل؛ دویران، اسماعیل؛ کاظمیان، غلام‌رضا و  افتخاری، رکن‌الدین (1391). سنجش هم‌افزایی میان‌نهادی (بخش دولتی و عمومی) در مدیریت شهری شهرهای میانی ایران در مواجهه با اسکان غیررسمی (نمونة موردی: شهرهای طنجان و همدان)، مجلة جغرافیا و توسعة شهری، 1: 135-156.
  18. موحد، علی؛ گلی، علی و ‏ایزدی، پگاه (1392). کارکرد رهیافت بازآفرینی پایدار شهری محله‌های حاشیه‌نشین (مطالعة موردی: محلة سعدی شیراز)، پژوهش های جغرافیای انسانی، 45(۱): 105-122.
  19. وردی نژاد، فریدون و یمینی، سارا (1387 )، مدل ارزیابی متوازن و عملکرد شهرداری تهران، پژوهش مدیریت شهری، 1: 20-27 .

20. Ahmadi, A. and Feyzabadi, H. (2011). Investigating the Promotion of Social Capital on Improving Organization Performance (Case Study: Tehran Municipality Offices), Government Management Quarterly, 3(6): 35-88.

21. Aoki, M. (2007). Endogenizing institutions and institutional changes, Journal of Institutional Economics, 3(1): 1-31.

22. Bastani, S. (2007). Family Comes First: An Analysis of Men’s and Women’s Networks in Tehran, Social Networks,  29(3): 357-374.

23. Bastani, S. and Raeesi, M. (2011). Network Analysis Method: Using the Total Grid Approach in Open Society Studies, Iranian , Social Studies Quarterly, 5(2): 32-69.

24. Beuningen, J. and Schmeet, H. (2013). Social capital in 2009: An index for the Netherlands, Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 73: 73-90.

25. Bodin, O. and Prell, C. (2011). Social network in natural resources management, Cambridge University press. Borgatti, S., Everett, M. and Freeman, L. 1999. UCINET 6.0 Version. 1.00. Analytic Technologies, Natick, MA.

26. Bruggeman, J. (2008). Social networks an introduction, Routledge press.

27. Carlsson, L. and Berkes, F. (2005). Co-management: concepts and methodological implications, Journal of Environmental Management, 75(1): 65-76.

28. Chakrabarty, P. and Dhar, G. (2001). Urban crisis in India: New initiatives for sustainable cities, Development in Practice,  11(2-3): 260-272.

29. Chalabi, M. (1994). Network Analysis in Sociology, Social Sciences Quarterly,  2(5 & 6): 9-48.

30. Christakis, N. and Fowler, J. (2009). Social network visualization in epidemiology, Norsk Epidemiology,  19(1): 5-16.

31. Dastmalchi, S. and Wazawai, S. (2011). Adopt an Appropriate Strategy to Increase Synergy in Holding Organizations, Conference of Holding Organizations (Functions and Challenges), Razi convention center.

32. Davenport, TH. and Prusak, L. (1998). Working Knowledge: How Organisations Manage what they Know, Boston: HBS Press, MA.

33. Faraji Rad, K. and Kazemian, G. (2013). Local and Regional Development from the Perspective of the Institutional Approach, Jihad-e-Sharif Publishing Organization, Tehran

34. Franco, B. and Chatterji, I. (2013). Planning for Mining Regions: Building Local Government’s Capacity in a Multi-stakeholder Collaboration Scenario. Collaboration scenario. In: Proceedings of the 49th ISOCARP Congress, Brisbane, Australia, (1-10).

35. Ghorbani, M.; Azarnivand, H.; Mehrabi, A.; Bastani, S.; Jafari, M. and Nayibi, H. (2012). Social Network Analysis: A New Approach to Policy Planning and Planning for Participatory Management of Natural Resources, Journal of Natural Resources, 65(4): 553-568.

36. Hassanzadeh, M.; Alipour Iragh, S. and Zandiyan, F. (2014). The study of the relationship between social capital and knowledge sharing in Iranian national information centers, Human Interaction and Information Quarterly, 1(1): 27-43.

37. Hesam, M. and Rezvani, M. (2014). A survey on the financial support of rural tourism businesses from each other through a network analysis approach (Case study: Haraz villages villages, Larijan section, Amol city), Rural Research and Planning Quarterly, 4(10): 127-142.

38. Hirschi, C. (2010). Strengthening Regional Cohesion: Collaborative Networks and Sustainable Development in Swiss Rural Areas, Ecology and Society, 15(4): 16-22.

39. Hogan, B. (2007). Analyzing Social Networks Via the Internet, London: Sage publication.

40. Izadi, P. (2017). Presenting and explaining the urban regeneration pattern with emphasis on the basis of cultural approach; Case study: Historical and cultural context of Shiraz city, PHD Thesis, SuperVisor, Sistan & Baluchestan University.

41. Izadi, P.; Hadiyani, Z.; Hajinejad, A. and Ghaderi, J. (2017). Urban regeneration with an emphasis on identifying and analyzing creative cultural clusters, Economics and Urban Management Quarterly, 5(2): 21-40.

42. Kendrick, A. (2003). Caribou co-management in northern Canada: fostering multiple ways of knowing. In: Berkes, F., Colding, J., Folke, C. (Eds.), Navigating Social ecological Systems, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 241-267.

43. Khatibi, S.M. (2015). Application of strategic planning planning process as an approach to urban regeneration planning in organizing behavioral patterns of citizens, (Case study: Sepah Qazvin Street, Iran's First Designed Street), Human Geography Research Quarterly, 47(3): 439-450.

44. McQuaid, R.W. (2010). Theory of Organisational Partnerships – partnership advantages, disadvantages and success factors, in: S.P. Osborne (ed.) The New Public Governance: Critical Perspectives and Future Directions, (Routledge, London), pp. 125-146.

45. Meshkini, A.; Dawiran, I.; Kazemian, G. and Roknaddin, E. (2012). Measurement of inter-institutional synergies (public and public sectors) in urban management of the central cities of Iran in the face of informal settlements (case study: cities Tangean and Hamedan), Journal of Geography and Urban Development, 1: 135-156.

46. Misztal, B. (1996Trust in Modern Societies:The Search for the Bases of Social Order,

47. .( Cambridge: Polity Press), pp. 1-360

48. Mitchell,R.E, (1971). Some Social Implications of High Density Housing, American Sociological Review, 36(1): 18-19.

49. Movahhed, A.; Goli, A. and Izadi, P. (2013). The Function of Urban Sustainable Recovery in Rural Areas (Case Study: Saa'di District of Shiraz), Human Geography Research, 45(1): 105-122.

50. Myeong, S. and Hyungjun, S. (2016). Which Type of Social Capital Matters for Building Trust in Government? Looking for a New Type of Social Capital in the Governance Era, Sustainability journal, 8: 1-15.

51. Piran, P.; Rafieyan, M.; Rezaee, M. and Dehghan, H. (2016). Identifying the Factors Affecting the Establishment of Social Institutions in Better Managing Localities; Case Study: Localities in Ferdowsi City - Shahriar City, Urban Planning and Research Quarterly, 7(25): 1-22.

52. Population and Housing Statistics Organization, Population and Housing Census (2011(.

53. Ramezani, A. and Mirza Mohammadi, A. (2013). Social Network Analysis, Ucinet Software Education, Tehran: Sociologists Publishing.

54. Rezaian, A. (2002). Principles of Organizational Behavior Management, Tehran: Publication, S, Third Edition, Tehran.

55. Roberts, P. and Syk, H. (2014). Urban Regeneratin (Translated by Mohammad Saeed Izadi and Pirouz Hanachi), Tehran University Press.

56. Roberts, P. and Sykes, H. (2000). Urban Regeneration, London: SAGE Publication.

57. Savioli, M. and Patuelli, R. (2016). Social Capital, Institutions and Policy making, Economics journal, 26: 1-29.

58. Tsenkova, S. (2002). Urban Regeneration, Learning from the British Experience, Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary.

59. Uphoff (1999). Understanding Social Capital: Learning from The Analysis and Experiences of Participation; in Dasgupta and Serageldin, Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective, World Bank, USA.

  1. 60.         Wellman, Barry (1979). The Community Question: The Intimate Networks of  East Yorkers . American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 84, No(5): 1201–31. 

61. Yann, C.S. (2009). The use of corporate synergy systems in promoting industrial waste minimization in small and medium enterprises in Taiwan, Taiwan Environmental management, Association, Taipei International Green Productivity Association, Taipei, 105-115.

Volume 52, Issue 1
April 2020
Pages 241-261
  • Receive Date: 30 January 2018
  • Revise Date: 20 October 2018
  • Accept Date: 20 October 2018
  • First Publish Date: 20 March 2020