Spatial analysis of the distribution of urban public services using Euclidean distance matrix (A case Study: Yazd City)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Geography, social Science Faculty, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Expert of Urban Services of Isfahan Municipality, Isfahan, Iran


According to the international reports, more than half of the world's population had been settled in urban areas in 2007. Meanwhile only 13 % of the world’s population lived in urban areas until a century before. The growth of urban population is such that today, 4 percent of the Earth's surface is allocated to the urban areas. This is expected to reach 65 % in 2030. Rapid urban growth, physical development of the cities, and irregular and haphazard spatial development in the recent decades have all led to the disintegration of the spatial organization of the cities. Regrettably, the distribution of urban services has been studied more in terms of land use schemes and user per capita, and residents ' access to urban services has not been taken into account adequately. As one of the major cities of Iran, Yazd is not an exception. This city has experienced horizontal and fragmented expansion in the recent decades. This has caused some sort of imbalance in the use of urban services. So, the available evidence suggests that the outer and newly formed part of the city has low access to the public services. In fact, the distribution pattern is not proportional to the growth and development of the city. The present paper seeks to investigate and evaluate the distribution of the urban public services in the city of Yazd and determine the concentrated areas.
In this research, based on the existing land use maps related to the detailed plan of Yazd city, different layers associated to the location of urban services were created in the Arc_GIS_10.3 software. Then, for weighting, a questionnaire was developed and distributed among experts to use the resulting information. Based on this questionnaire and Delphi technique, the primary and secondary services were also weighted. To analyze the level of urban services, we used the Euclidean distance and the layers overlay techniques in order to analyze the distribution of the urban public services in three regions of Yazd.
Results and discussion
Yazd city, as in many cities of Iran, due to the unbalanced development resulting from the migration flood from villages, faces the problem of poor distribution of urban services and facilities. Unplanned city development has led to the expansion of the provision of some services far from the city center, making it difficult for such areas to have access to these services. A survey of the distribution of services on the detailed maps of Yazd city indicates the inappropriate distribution of many urban services in the city. In addition, the physical expansion without the city's plan has led to some services far from the city's population centers, leading to difficult access. To begin, the analysis of the distribution of health care services shows that 8.5 percent of the city's area has a very poor distribution and 14.3 percent of the city's area suffers from the poor distribution. Distribution of educational services shows that about 34.7 of the total area of Yazd city is below the average level. Also, the distribution of urban facilities in more than 12.1 per cent of Yazd city level is at poor and very poor levels. Regarding the cultural services, the results suggest that the distribution of these services in 47.8 % of Yazd city is less than the average level. The analysis of the distribution of religious services also suggests that 24.7% of the total area of Yazd city has the average distribution. In the case of sport services, the results showed that the distribution of such services in an area equal to 20.4 percent of the city was at poor and very poor levels. The distribution of transportation services in 23.5% of the total area of Yazd city was average, while in 13 % of the city's area, it was at poor and very poor levels. Also, the distribution of green spaces and parks in an area equal to 10.6 percent of the total area of Yazd urban area was at poor and very poor levels.
The spatial distribution of services on the map shows that religious services have been mostly focused in the center of the city, where the primary nucleus of Yazd has been located; as we get far from the center of city, the concentration of religious services is reduced. The distribution of the main services in 11 % of the city's area is at a poor level. The distribution of services in 21 % of the city’s surface area is at the average level, while 34 % of the city's area is at the good level; ultimately, an area equivalent to 30 % is at the very good level.
The beginning of any kind of planning leading to the proper distribution of public services in cities lies in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the distribution in all parts of the city. In this study, the spatial distribution of primary and secondary public services of Yazd in nine main categories (health care, education, religion, culture, green spaces, sports, transportation, urban facilities and urban equipment) were analyzed using GIS software capabilities.
Overall, the results of the study indicated that in 36 percent of the total area of Yazd, public services distribution was average and less. On the other hand, in 66.4 percent of the area of Yazd city, these services were the good and very good levels. The study of the maps of the study also showed that poor and very poor distributions had mostly occurred in the newly developed urban areas. In other words, as we move from the inner regions of the city to the outer ones, the distribution of services tends to be poor and very poor. Finally, it should be noted that to ensure public access to urban services, we need to locate all kinds of public services in the outer and newly developed areas of Yazd in order to ensure spatial justice and appropriate distribution of public services. To sum up, the best spatial distribution was related to green space services and the weakest one belonged to the cultural services.


Main Subjects

  1. اسماعیل‏زاده، حسن و افضلی گروه، زهرا، 1394، استراتژی بهینة تحقق عدالت فضایی پراکنش جمعیت و خدمات شهری با استفاده از مدل ترکیبی (مطالعة موردی: شهر بناب)، فصل‏نامة مطالعات برنامه‏ریزی شهری، س ۳، ش 11، صص ۲۵-52.
  2. اسماعیل‏زاده، حسن؛ کرباسی، پوران؛ روی دل، جابر؛ افضلی، معین و افضلی، زهرا، 1395، تحلیل فضایی پراکنش جمعیت و خدمات شهری از منظر عدالت اجتماعی با استفاده از روش ترکیبی (مطالعة موردی: شهر بناب)، پژوهش‏های جغرافیایی برنامهریزی شهری، دورة 4، ش 2، صص ۲۴۱-260.
  3. اسماعیل‏زاده، حسن و معصومی، لیلا، 1394، تحلیل عدالت فضایی شهرستان‏های استان اردبیل در بخش شاخص‏های بهداشتی‏- درمانی با استفاده از مدل Vikor، فصل‏نامة مطالعات مدیریت شهری، س ۷، ش 23، صص ۹۳-104.
  4. بزی، خدارحم و عبداللهی پورحقیقی، ابوالفضل، 1392، تحلیل پراکنش مکانی خدمات شهری برمبنای خواست مردم (مطالعة موردی: شهر استهبان)، جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی محیطی، س 24، شمارة پیاپی 49، ش 1، صص ۲۰۱-214.
  5. تقوایی، مسعود و ذاکری، الهه، 1392، پراکنش فضایی خدمات بیمارستانی و درمانگاهی با استفاده از GIS و مدل Topsis (مورد: شهر اصفهان)، مدیریت اطلاعات سلامت، دورة ۱۰، ش 4، صص ۵۸۱-591.
  6. توکلی‏نیا، جملیه؛ مسلمی، آمران؛ فیروزی، ابراهیم و بندانی، سارا، 1394، تحلیلی بر پراکنش جمعیت و توزیع خدمات شهری بر پایة عدالت فضایی (مطالعة موردی: شهر اردبیل)، پژوهش‏های جغرافیایی برنامه‏ریزی شهری، دورة ۳، ش 3، صص ۲۸۵-308.
  7. حاتمی‏نژاد، حسین؛ فرهودی، رحمت‏الله و محمدپور جابری، مرتضی، 1387، تحلیل نابرابری اجتماعی در برخورداری از کاربری‏های خدمات شهری؛ مورد مطالعه: شهر اسفراین، پژوهش‏های جغرافیای انسانی، ش 65، صص ۷۱-85.
  8. حکمت‏نیا، حسن؛ گیوه‏چی، سعید؛ حیدری نوشهر، نیر و حیدری نوشهر، مهری، 1390، تحلیل توزیع فضایی خدمات عمومی شهری با استفاده از روش استانداردسازی داده‏ها، تاکسونومی عددی و مدل ضریب ویژگی (مطالعة موردی: شهر اردکان)، پژوهش‏های جغرافیای انسانی، ش 77، صص ۱۶۵-179.
  9. جمالی، فیروز؛ صدر موسوی، میرستار و اشلقی، مهدی، 1393، ارزیابی الگوهای مکان‏یابی بیمارستان‏ها در شهر تبریز، نشریة جغرافیا و برنامه‏ریزی، س ۱۸، ش 47، صص ۲۳-53.
  10. خاک‏پور، برات‏علی و باوان پوری، علی‏رضا، 1388، بررسی و تحلیل نابرابری در سطوح توسعه‏یافتگی شهر مشهد، مجلة دانش و توسعه، س 16، ش 27، صص ۱۸۲-202.
  11. داداش‏پور، هاشم؛ رستمی، فرامرز، و علیزاده، بهرام، 1393، بررسی و تحلیل توزیع عادلانة خدمات شهری و الگوی پراکنش فضایی آن‏ها در شهر همدان، فصل‏نامة مطالعات شهری، ش 12، صص ۵-18.
  12. داداش‏پور، هاشم و رستمی، فرامرز، 1390، سنجش عدالت فضایی یکپارچة خدمات عمومی شهری براساس توزیع جمعیت، قابلیت دسترسی و کارایی در شهر یاسوج، مطالعات و پژوهش‏های شهری و منطقه‏ای، س ۳، ش 10، صص ۱-22.
  13. ذاکریان، ملیحه؛ موسوی، میرنجف و باقری­کشکولی، علی، 1389، تحلیلی بر پراکنش جمعیت و توزیع خدمات در محلات شهری میبد از منظر توسعۀ پایدار، پژوهش و برنامه­ریزی شهری، س 1، ش 2، صص 84-61.  
  14. قائدرحمتی، صفر و حاضری، مهین، 1393، بررسی و تحلیل سطح دسترسی محلات به خدمات شهری؛ نمونة موردی: محلات شهر مهریز، فصل‏نامة جغرافیا و مطالعات محیطی، س ۳، ش 9، صص ۶۳-76.
  15. رفیعیان، مجتبی؛ علیزاده، آزاده و تقوایی، علی‏اکبر، 1395، تحلیل افتراق فضایی در محله‏های شهر یزد با استفاده از تحلیل شبکه و چیدمان فضا، پژوهش‏های جغرافیای انسانی، دورة ۴۸، ش 3، صص ۴۴۱-459.
  16. زیاری، کرامت‏اله؛ مهدیان بهنمیری، معصومه و مهدی، علی، 1392، بررسی و سنجش عدالت فضایی بهره‏مندی از خدمات عمومی شهری براساس توزیع جمعیت و قابلیت دسترسی در شهر بابلسر، نشریة تحقیقات کاربردی علوم جغرافیایی، س ۱۳، ش 28، صص ۲۱۷-241.
  17. شریف‏زادگان، محمدحسین، ممدوحی، امیررضا و لاوی، مریم، 1389، نابرابری فضایی در دسترسی به خدمات درمان عمومی برای توسعۀ سلامت شهری از طریق مدل p-median در شهر اصفهان، فصل‏نامة رفاه اجتماعی، س ۱۰، ش 37، صص ۲۶۵-285.
  18. عظیمی، نورالدین؛ زالی، نادر و آزاده، سیدرضا، 1395، تحلیل الگوهای توسعة فیزیکی شهرهای ایران با توجه به متغیرهای جمعیتی، طبیعی، و کالبدی، پژوهش‏های جغرافیای انسانی، دورة ۴۸، ش 3، صص ۴۶۱-473.
  19. کیانی، اکبر و کاظمی، علی‏اکبر، 1394، تحلیل توزیع خدمات عمومی شهر شیراز با مدل‏های خودهمبستگی فضایی در نرم‏افزار ArcGIS و Geoda، نشریة پژوهش و برنامه‏ریزی شهری، س ۶، ش 22، صص ۱-14.
  20. نظم‏فر، حسین؛ عشقی چهاربرج، علی؛ بهروزی، مستجاب و علوی، سعیده، 1395، سنجش نابرابرهای فضایی مناطق شهری از منظر عدالت اجتماعی (مطالعة موردی: مناطق ده‏گانة شهر تبریز)، فصل‏نامة تحقیقات جغرافیایی، س ۳۱، ش ۱، شمارة پیاپی 120، صص ۱-18.

21. Azimi, N.; Zali, N. and Azadeh, S.R., 2016, Analyzing the Patterns of Physical Development of Iranian Cities in Regard to Demographic, Natural and Physical Variables, Human Geography Researches, Vol. 42, No. 3, PP. 461-473.

22. Barresi, A. and Pultrone, G., 2013, European strategies for smarter cities. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, Vol. 6, No. 1, PP. 61-72.

23. Bassett, S. M., 2013, The role of spatial justice in the regeneration of urban spaces: Groningen, The Netherlands. MUP Capstone.

24. Bazi, Kh. and Abdollahipoorheghighi, A., 2013, Analysis of Spatial Distribution of Urban Services Based on the People's Demand (Case Study: Estahban City), Geography and Environmental Planning, Vol. 24, No. 1, PP. 201-214.

25. Buczkowska, S.; Coulombel, N. and Lapparent, M.D., 2017, Euclidean versus network distance in business location: A probabilistic mixture of hurdle-Poisson models, Report, PP. 21.

26. Cilliers, S.; du Toit, M.; Cilliers, J.; Drewes, E. and Retief, F., 2014, Sustainable urban landscapes: South African perspectives on transdisciplinary possibilities, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 125, PP. 260-270.

27. Dadashpour, H. and Rostami, F., 2011, Integrated urban justice services based on population distribution, accessibility and efficiency in Yasuj city, Urban and Regional Studies and Research, Vol. 3 No. 10, PP. 1-22.

28. Dadashpour, H.; Rostami, F. and Alizadeh, B., 2014, Investigating and analysis of the equitable distribution of urban services and their spatial distribution pattern in Hamedan, Quarterly Journal of Urban Studies, No. 12, PP. 5-18.

29. Esmaeilzadeh, H. and Afzaligroh, Z., 2015, Optimal Realization Strategy for Spatial Justice Dispersal of Population and Urban Services Using a Combined Model (Case Study: Bonab City), Quarterly Journal of Urban Planning, Vol. 3, No. 11, PP. 25-52.

30. Esmaeilzadeh, H. and Masoumi, L., 2015, Analysis of Spatial Justice in Ardebil County in the Health Indicators Section Using the Vikor Model, Journal of Urban Management Studies, Vol. 7, No. 23, PP. 93-104.

31. Esmailzadeh, H.; Karbasi, P.; Roydell, J.; Afzali, M. and Afzali, Z., 2016, Spatial Analysis of Population Distribution and Urban Services from the Perspective of Social Justice Using a Combined Method (Case Study: Bonab City), Geographical Research of Urban Planning, Vol. 4, No. 2, PP. 241-260.

32. Fazel, M.; Hindi, H. and Boyd, S. P., 2003, Log-det heuristic for matrix rank minimization with applications to Hankel and Euclidean distance matrices, In American Control Conference, 2003. Proceedings of the 2003, Vol. 3, PP. 2156-2162.

33. Gargiulo, C. and Zucaro, F., 2015, Smartness and urban resilience. A model of energy saving. Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment, Vol. 8 (Special Issue ECCA 2015), PP. 81-102.

34. Ghadeghmati, S. and Hazeri, M., 2014, Investigating and analyzing the access level of neighborhoods to urban services. Case study: Mehriz Neighborhoods, Geography Quarterly and Environmental studies, Vol. 3, No. 9, PP. 63-76.

35. Hataminezhad, H.; Farhoudi, R. and Mohammadpourjaberi, M., 2008, Analysis of Social Inequality in Utilization of Urban Services; Case Study: Esfarain Township, Human Geographic Research, No. 65, PP. 71-85.

36. Hekmatnia, H.; Ghiwechi, S.; Heidarinowshahr, N. and Heidarinowshahr, M., 2011, Urban Public Utilities Spatial Distribution Analysis Using Data Standardization Method, Numerical Taxonomy and Feature Coefficient Model (Case Study: Ardakan), Human Geography Research, No. 77, PP. 165-179.

37. Jamali, F.; Sadrmousavi, M. and Ashlaghi, M., 2014, Evaluation of Hospital Location Patterns in Tabriz City, Geography and Planning, Vol. 18, No. 47, PP. 23-53.

38. Khakpoor, B. and Bovanuri, A., 2009, Investigating and Analysis Inequalities in Developmental Levels in Mashhad, Science and Development Magazine, Vol. 16, No. 27, PP. 182-202.

39. Kiani, A. and Kazemi, A.A., 2015, Analysis of distribution of public services in Shiraz with spatial autocorrelation models in ArcGIS and Geoda software, Urban Planning Research and Development Journal, Vol. 6, No. 22, PP. 1-14.

40. Li, L.; Ren, Q.F. and Ma, X., 2019, Assessing Spatial Accessibility to Hierarchical Urban Parks by Multi-Types of Travel Distance in Shenzhen, China, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol.16, No. 1038, PP. 1-23.

41. Martenz, J., 2009, The use of GIS and Indicatirs to Monitor IintraUrban Inequalities, A case Study in Rosario, Argentina, Habitate International, Vol. 33, No. 1, PP. 387-396 .

42. Nazmfar, H.; Eshghichahaborj, A.; Behrozi, M. and Alavi, S., 2016, Assessment of Spatial Inequalities From Perspective of Social Justice in Urban Areas (Case study: Ten areas of Tabriz city), Quarterly Journal of Geographic Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, PP. 1-18.

43. Rafiean, M.; Alizadeh, A. and Taghvaei, A.A., 2016, Analysis of Spatial Differentiation in Neighborhoods of Yazd City Using Network Analysis and Space Layout, Human Geography Research, Vol. 48, No. 3, PP. 441-459.

44. Sander, H.A.; Ghosh, D.; Riper, D.V. and Manson, S.M., 2010, How do you measure distance in spatial models? An example using open-space valuation, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 37, PP. 874-894.

45. Sharifzadegan, M.H.; Mamdouhi, A.R. and Lavi, M., 2010, Spatial Inequality in Access to General Health Services for Urban Development through the P-Median Model in Isfahan, Social Welfare Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 37, PP. 265-285.

46. Taghvaei, M. and Zakeri, E., 2013, Spatial Dispersion of Hospital Services in a Manipula Using GIS and Topsis Model (Case Study: Isfahan City), Health Information Management, Vol. 10, No. 4, PP. 581-591.

47. Taleai, M.; Sliuzas, R. and Flacke, J., 2014, An integrated framework to evaluate the equity of urban public facilities using spatial multi-criteria analysis, Cities, Vol. 40, PP. 56-69.

48. Talen, E. and Anselin, L., 1998, Assessing spatial equity: an evaluation of measures of accessibility to public playgrounds, Environment and planning A, Vol. 30, No. 4, PP. 595-613.

49. Tavakolinia, J.; Moslemi, A.; Firoozi, E. and Bandani, S., 2015, An Analysis of Population Distribution and Urban Distribution Based on Spatial Justice (Case Study: Ardabil City), Geographical Research of Urban Planning, Vol. 3, No. 3, PP. 285-308.

50. Tsou, K. W.; Hung, Y. T. and Chang, Y. L., 2005, An accessibility-based integrated measure of relative spatial equity in urban public facilities, Cities, Vol. 22, No. 6, PP. 424-435.

51. Wang, L.; Zhang, Y. and Feng, J., 2005, On the Euclidean distance of images, IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, Vol. 27, No. 8, PP. 1334-1339.

52. Wang, Z.; Yue, Y.; Li, Q.; Nie, K. and Yu, Ch., 2017, Analysis of the Spatial Variation of Network-Constrained Phenomena Represented by a Link Attribute Using a Hierarchical Bayesian Model, International Journal of Geo-Information,  Vol. 6, No. 44, PP. 1-14.

53. Williams, J., 2013, Toward a Theory of Spatial Justice. “Theorizing Green Urban Communities” Panel, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Political Science Association Los Angeles, CA, University of Michigan, PP. 1-24.

54. Zakerian, M., Mosavin, M.N. and Bagherikashkoli, A., 2010, An Analysis of Population Distribution and Service Distribution from the Perspective of Sustainable Development in Neighborhoods of Meybod Urban, Journal of Research and Urban Planning, Vol. 1, No. 2, PP. 61-84.

55. Ziari, K.; Mehdianbehnamiri, M. and Mehdi, A., 2013, Investigating and Evaluation of spatial justice. Utilization of public urban services based on population distribution and accessibility in Babolsar, Journal of Applied Geosciences Research, Vol. 3, No. 28, PP. 217-241.