Muslim Brotherhood and its Territory Building in the Political Geography of the Islamic World

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Candidate in Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor of Political Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


The Muslim Brotherhood began as a political-social movement in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna in Egypt. Despite the fact that the Muslim Brotherhood is an Egyptian organization, the essence of this ideology, based on territory, a nation, and divine sovereignty, gave it transnational motives on a regional and global scale. In order to be able to achieve its ultimate goal, the Brotherhood sought to build a territory in the political geography of the Islamic world. Thus, in the late 1930s, it began to establish ties with Islamist enthusiasts in the Arabic and Islamic world. Using a descriptive-analytic research design, this study aimed to determine factors motivating the territory building activities by the Muslim Brotherhood in the political geography of the Muslim world.
At the end of the First World War, the Ottoman Empire collapsed and Britain and France began to divide the Ottoman Empire among them; each dominating a part of Southwest Asia. Aside from Iraq, Jordan and Palestine where occupied by the Britain, and Syria and Lebanon, the rest of the Ottoman territories, including Egypt, have become the focal point of rivalry among the colonial powers. Apart from the colonial powers and governments, which have always been a constant force for the territory building in the Muslim world, ideologies are among other actors motivating the territory building activities. One of these actors is the "Muslim Brotherhood" that was established by Hassan al-Banna in 1928, and has been taking considerable efforts for the territory building, especially in the West and Southwest Asia, despite its failure in Egypt (2013). This study is to analyze the role of this ideology in the territory building and regional competitions, because the Turkish government is now using this ideology in line with its “Neo-Ottomanism” tendencies.
A descriptive-analytical method was employed in this study. The data were collected using a library method from different books, articles and internet resources. The first stage in the method was the attempts in identifying relevant and relevant resources, identifying and extracting important materials by note taking. Finally, we made efforts in collecting and processing the library documents. By examining the role, the presence, and influence of the Muslim Brotherhood's ideology on different national scales, the main question addressed in this study is: What factors have motivated the territory building activities by the Muslim Brotherhood in the political geography of the Muslim world? Based on the methodology taken in this study and according to the theory of territory building, it seems that such activities can be attributed to ideological believes of this Islamic movement to defend the greatness of Islam and Muslims.
Results and discussion
As mentioned, with the collapse of the Ottoman caliphate, colonial powers dominated Islamic countries. The rulers of the Islamic countries did not have a strong will to handle the affairs of their country, and the colonial countries treated the people as they wished. The cruelty and oppression of the colonialists against peoples of the Islamic nations were so intense that the anger of Muslim people and intellectuals was provoked. One of these Muslim intellectuals was Hasan al-Banna from Egypt. He believed that the whole world of Islam is a single homeland, all Muslims, a nation that must be based on the rule of divine law. In 1928, al-Banna established the Muslim Brotherhood in response to the oppression of French companies against Egyptian workers. After a while, the Brotherhood became a widespread ideology in Egypt. This movement had some clash and conflicts with Israel, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat, and Hosni Mubarak. With the advent of the Arab Spring which was followed by the Egyptian Revolution (2011), Mubarak was overthrown and the Brotherhood came to power after years of struggle, but their rule was short and they were overthrown in 2013. Therefore, the findings of this study also indicated that the collapse of the Ottoman caliphate, the domination of the colonialists over the Islamic countries, their oppression to the Muslims, the establishment of the regime of Israel, and also political tyranny in Islamic countries were among the factors that strongly influenced the Muslim Brotherhood and forced them to react to the turbulent conditions of the Islamic world. The results indicated that such activities were motivated by the ideological beliefs of this Islamic movement to awaken the Islamic Ummah and defend the greatness of Islam and Muslims.
The Brotherhood’s dominance has been developed on a regional and global scale. But their territory building activities were not uniform and concurrent outside the borders of Egypt. In the early 1930s, the Muslim Brotherhood established the “International Organization of the Muslim Brotherhood”. This organization, beyond the Islamic world, sought to spread its influence in Europe. After the dissolution of the Brotherhood by Nasser, this organization played an important role in connecting the Brotherhood branches.
The Muslim Brotherhood founded as a movement in response to the developments in the Islamic world developed its power beyond national borders in pursuit of their goals. Some of the goals are including the Islamic awakening and the defense of the greatness of Islam and Muslims, and launching a territory building campaign on a regional scale. The Brotherhood also sought a sphere of influence on a global scale to advance its goals and plans. Therefore, the Muslim Brotherhood established the International Organization of the Muslim Brotherhood in the 1930s to create and enhance coordination and communication between the branches of the Muslim Brotherhood. Therefore, the territory building activities by the Muslim Brotherhood in the Muslim world can be considered in the context of Islamic awakening movement and convergence in the Muslim world based on the teachings of Salafi Islam promoted by Seyyed Jamal al-Din Asadabadi.


Main Subjects

  1. ابراهیمی، نبی‌الله، 1395، نئوسلفی‌گری و جهانی‌شدن امنیت خاورمیانه، پژوهشکدة مطالعات راهبردی، تهران.
  2. آجیلی، هادی و مهدی بیکی، 1395، واکاوی دگردیسی سیاسی جنبش اسلام‌گرای اخوان‌المسلمین تونس، پژوهش‌های سیاسی جهان اسلام، سال ششم، شمارة 1، صص 1- 281.
  3. احمدی، حمید، 1390، سیر تحول جنبش‌های اسلامی، دانشگاه امام صادق (ع)، تهران.
  4. احمدی طباطبائی، سید محمدرضا و مهدی پیروزفر، 1397، اسلام سیاسی مدرن در ترکیه؛ مطالعة موردی اندیشه‌های سیاسی نجم‌الدین اربکان، فصلنامة سیاست، دورة چهل‌و‌هشتم، شمارة 2، صص 289- 307.
  5. احمدیان، حسن، 1391، گذار مصر از رژیم اقتدارگرا؛ عوامل و زمینه‌ها، فصلنامة مطالعات فلسطین، شمارة 13، صص 191- 218.
  6. اخوان کاظمی، مسعود، صادقی، سید شمس‌الله و کامران لطفی، 1397، تحلیل زمینه‌های سیاسی و اجتماعی حضور داعش در آسیای مرکزی، مطالعات اوراسیای مرکزی، دورة یازدهم، شمارة 1، صص 1-21.
  7. آدابی، محمدجواد، 1388، اسلام‌هراسی، بنیادگرایی و تروریسم، مجموعه مقالات همایش (جهان اسلام قربانی تروریسم)، صص، 115- 120.
  8. اسپوزیتو، جان و جان وال، 1397، جنبش‌های اسلامی معاصر، ترجمة شجاع احمدوند، نشر نی، تهران.
  9. البناء، حسن، 2011، مذاکرات الدعوه و داعیه، مؤسسه اقراء، مصر.
  10. الجندی، انور، 1389، امام حسن‌البناء شهید و منادی بیداری، ترجمة مصطفی اربابی، نشر احسان، تهران.
  11. الصادق، محمد، 1437 ق، الاخوان و السعودیه، العوده المشروطه، جریده العربی الجدید اللندنیه، لندن.
  12. برونیار، لیا، 1388، جمعیت اخوان‌المسلمین مصر، ترجمة عبدالله فرهی، پژوهشکدة تاریخ اسلام، تهران.
  13. بورجا، فرانسوا، 1392، اسلام سیاسی در تونس، ترجمة سید هادی خسروشاهی، بوستان کتاب، قم.
  14. بهجتی اردکانی، حسین، 1394، عوامل مؤثر بر ناکامی اخوان‌المسلمین در مصر، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور تهران.
  15.  پیشگاهی‌فرد، زهرا، سازگاری اردکانی، محمود، قالیباف، محمدباقر و حسن کامران، 1393، تبیین قلمروخواهی اخوان‌المسلمین در منطقة خاورمیانه، پژوهش‌های سیاسی جهان اسلام، سال چهارم، شمارة 1، صص 1- 27.1
  16. تقوی سنگدهی، لیلا و سعیده وحیدفر، 1394، بررسی نقش اخوان‌المسلمین در تحولات سیاسی سوریه 1954-2015، تاریخ‌نامة خوارزمی، سال سوم، صص 73- 98.
  17. حافظ‌نیا، محمدرضا، 1390، اصول و مفاهیم ژئوپلیتیک، آستان قدس رضوی، تهران.
  18. حشمت‌زاده، محمدباقر و محمد اسماعیل نوذری، 1391، گفتمان رسمی علمای مسلمان در اتحاد شوروی، مطالعات اوراسیای مرکزی، سال پنجم، شمارة 10، صص 61-78
  19.  خامه‌یار، عباس، 1390، ایران و اخوان‌المسلمین: عوامل همگرایی و واگرایی، اندیشه‌سازان نور، تهران.  
  20. خدایوندی، علی‌اکبر، 1395، بررسی علل ناکامی جنبش اخوان‌المسلمین مصر در ایجاد نظام سیاسی بعد از مبارک در سال 2012، پایان‌نامة ارشد علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه.
  21. خیری، ابوذر، 1387، تجدید حیات اسلام در آسیای مرکزی، ترجمة سیاوش یاری و پرویز باقری، مؤسسه تبیان، قم.
  22. دارا، جلیل و مصطفی کرمی، 1392، نقش اخوان‌المسلمین در انقلاب 2011 مصر، در پرتو رابطه ساختار- کارگزار، فصلنامة جهان اسلام، سال سوم، شمارة 8، صص 27 – 54.
  23. دکمجیان، هرایر،1366، جنبش‌های اسلامی معاصر در جهان عرب، ترجمه حمید احمدی، تهران: کیهان
  24. دوترئی، تری، 1385، سوریه، ترجمة مهسا خلیلی، ققنوس، تهران.
  25. ذوالفقاری، سید محمد، 1389، جریان اخوان‌المسلمین در خاورمیانه، فصلنامة پژوهش‌های منطقه‌ای، شمارة 3، صص 106- 129.
  26. ذوالفقاری، سید محمد، 1390، بازخوانی اسلام سیاسی در تونس، مجلة پژوهش‌های منطقه‌ای، شمارة 6، صص 15- 51.
  27. دیانت، محسن، عباسی، مجتبی و محمد فرهادی، 1398، بررسی و مقایسة نقش شاخص‌های توسعة اجتماعی در گرایش به‌سوی اسلام تندرو در آسیای مرکزی، مطالعات اوراسیای مرکزی، دورة دوازدهم، شمارة 1، صص 35- 56.  
  28. رأفت، یحیی، 1380، جماعت اسلامی پاکستان، ترجمة عابد حسن بارکزهی، نشر احسان، تهران.
  29. رزق، جابر، 1380، اخوان‌المسلمین، ترجمة مصطفی اربابی، تایباد: نشر سنتزنگنه، صباح و حسن کریمی، 1396، پیشینة گروه‌های جهادی در کردستان عراق، فصلنامة سیاست خارجی، شمارة 2، صص 81- 108.
  30. ساجدی، امیر و رنجبر، رحمان، 1394، نقش و جایگاه نظامیان مصر در تحولات انقلاب ژوئیه 2011، سال پنجم، شمارة 1، صص 51- 76.
  31. سلیمان، محمد، 1437، هل یسیر تنظیم الاخوان‌المسلمین الی الانهیار الداخلیا؟، معهد واشنطن، تحلیل السیاسات.
  32. سنائی، مهدی، 1391، گرایش‌های اسلامی آسیای مرکزی، ماهنامة ایراس، شمارة 10، صص 50- 68.
  33.  قطب، سید 1390، نشانه‌های راه، ترجمة محمود محمودی، نشر احسان، تهران.
  34. عنایت، حمید، 1381، سیری در اندیشة سیاسی عرب، امیرکبیر، تهران.
  35. فوزی، یحیی و سید عباس هاشمی، 1394، جریان‌های سیاسی اسلام‌گرا و چالش‌های درون در اردن، جامعه‌شناسی سیاسی جهان اسلام، دورة سوم، شمارة 1، صص 1- 28.
  36. فوزی، یحیی، 1391، علل شکل‌گیری و ماهیت جنبش‌های سیاسی در خاورمیانه؛ بررسی موردی جنبش‌های سیاسی در یمن، مطالعات جهان اسلام، سال اول، شمارة 1، صص 17- 34.
  37. فیرحی، داود و اکبر عسکری صدر، 1397، علل شکست اخوان‌المسلمین مصر پس از سرنگونی مبارک، علوم سیاسی، سال بیست‌و‌یکم، شمارة 82، صص 99- 126.
  38. کپل،ژیل، 1375، پیامبر و فرعون، ترجمه حمید احمدی، تهران: کیهانکریمی، حسن، 1397، ژئوپلیتیک، بنیادگرائی و رادیکالیسم اسلامی، نشر رازنهان، تهران.
  39. کولائی، الهه و مهدی بلورچی‌زاده، 1397، تحول در نقش و جایگاه تصوف در آسیای مرکزی، مطالعات اوراسیای مرکزی، دورة یازدهم، شمارة 2، صص 435- 452.
  40. محمد، ابراهیم و همکاران، 1390، اخوان‌المسلمین یمن، اندیشه‌سازان نور، تهران.
  41. محمد، ابراهیم و همکاران، 1385، اخوان‌المسلمین مصر، اندیشه‌سازان نور، تهران.
  42. محمودیان، محمد، 1391، اخوان‌المسلمین و آیندة سیاست خارجی مصر، فصلنامة مطالعات راهبردی، سال پانزدهم، شمارة 1، صص 103- 125.
  43. محمودی، اسماعیل، 1394، تبارشناسی پیدایش گروه‌های جهادی در کردستان عراق، فصلنامة زریبار، سال نوزدهم، شمارة 88، صص 164- 174.
  44. مرادی، وحید، 1391، الگوی رفتار سیاسی اخوان‌المسلمین پس از انقلاب 25 ژانویه، در بیداری اسلامی، ملاحظات ایرانی و غربی، انتشارات دانشگاه امام جعفر صادق، تهران.
  45. مسعودنیا، حسین و عاطفه فروغی، 1392، نظری بر نقش گروه‌های اسلام‌گرا در سومالی، مطالعات جهان اسلام، شمارة 3، صص 97- 122.
  46. مصطفی، هاله، 1385، راه به‌سوی القاعده، نشر آزادمهر، تهران.
  47. ملائکه، سید حسن و سید محمدامین حسینی، 1395، علل شکست اخوان‌المسلمین در برپایی حکومتی باثبات در مصر، فصلنامة تحقیقات سیاسی و بین‌المللی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شمارة 26، صص 55- 81.
  48. میشل، ریچارد، 1389، تاریخ جمعیت اخوان‌المسلمین از آغاز تا امروز، ترجمة سید هادی خسروشاهی، مرکز اسناد و تاریخ دیپلماسی، تهران.
  49. ندوی، ابوالحسن، 1379، سخنی با اخوان‌المسلمین، ترجمة زاهد ویسی، نشر احسان، تهران.

50. Ebrahimi, N., 2016, Neo-Salafism and Globalization of Middle East Security, Tehran, Strategic Studies Research Center. (In Persian)

51. Ajili, H., and Beiki, M., 2016, An Analysis of the Political Transformation of the Islamist Movement of the Muslim Brotherhood of Tunisia, Political Studies of the Islamic World, Vol. 6, No. 1, PP. 1-28 (In Persian)

52. Ahmadi, H., 2011, The Evolution of Islamic Movements, Tehran: Imam Sadegh University (AS). (In Persian)

53. Ahmadi Tabataba'i, S. M.R., and Piroozfar, M., 2018, Modern Political Islam in Turkey: Case Study of Najm al-Din Erbakan Political Thoughts, Quarterly Journal of Policy, Vol. 48, No. 2, PP. 289-307 (In Persian)

54. Ahmadian, H., 2012, The Transition of Egypt to the Authoritarian Regime: Factors and Grounds, Palestinian Studies Quarterly, No. 13. (In Persian)

55. Akhawan Kazemi, M., Sadeghi, S. S., and Lotfi, K., 2018, Analysis of the Political and Social Situations of ISIS in Central Asia (From Infiltration Threat to Actual Presence), Central Eurasian Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, PP. 1-21. (In Persian)

56. Adabi, J., 2009, Islamophobia, Fundamentalism, and Terrorism, Proceedings of the Conference on the Islamic World as Terrorism Victim, First Edition, PP. 115-120. (In Persian)

57. Esposito, J., and Wall, J., 2018, Contemporary Islamic Movements, Translated by A. Shuwa Vand Tehran: Ney.

58. Al-Banna, H., 2011, Mozakirat al-Da’wa and al-Da’ia, Eqra Institute, Egypt.

59. Al-Jandi, A, 2010, Imam Hassan al-Belna, Shahid and the Harbinger of Awakening, Translated by M. Arbabi, Ehsan, Tehran.

60. Al-Sadeq, M., 2016, Brotherhood and Saudis: Constitutional Return, The New London-Based Arab Newspaper.

61. Boruniar, L., 2009, The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood Society, Translated by A. Farahi, Tehran: Research Institute of Islamic History. (In Persian)

62. Bourja.F., 2013, Political Islam in Tunisia Translated by Sayed Hadi Khosroshahi, Qom: Bostn Ketab. (In Persian)

63. Behjati Ardakani, H., 2015, Factors Affecting the Failure of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Master's Thesis in Political Science: Payame Noor University of Tehran. (In Persian)

64. Pishgahfard, Z., Sazgari Ardekani, M., Ghalibaf, M. B., Kamran, H., 2014, Explaining the Territory of Muslim Brotherhood in the Middle East, Political Studies of the Islamic World, Vol.4, No. 1. PP. 1-27 (In Persian)

65. Taghavi Sangdeh, L., and Vahidfar, S., 2015, The Role of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Political Development of Syria from 1954 to 2015, Kharazmi Chronology. (In Persian)

66. Rezq, J., 2001, Muslim Brotherhood, Translated by M. Arbabi, Sunnah, Taybad. (In Persian)

67. Hafzania, M. R., 2011, Geopolitical Principles and Concepts,. Astan Quds Razavi,Tehran. (In Persian)

68. Heshmatzadeh, M. B., and Nozari, M. I., 2012, The Official Discourse of Muslim Scholars in the Soviet Union, Central Eurasia Studies, Vo. 5, No. 10, PP. 61-78 (In Persian)

69. Khameyar, A., 2011, Iran and Muslim Brotherhood: Convergence and Divergence Factors, Andishe Sazan Noor, Tehran. (In Persian)

70. Khodayavandi, A. A., 2016, The Causes of Failure of the Egyptian Brotherhood-Muslim Movement in Creating a Post-Mubarak Political System in 2012, Master’s Thesis in Political Science, Razi University of Kermanshah. (In Persian)

71. Kheiri, A., 2008, Revitalization of Islam in Central Asia, Translated by Siavash Yari and Parviz Bagheri, Tabian Institute,Qom. (In Persian)

72. Dara, J., and Karami, M., 2013, The role of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 in the Light of the Relationship between Structure-Agent, The Islamic World Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 8, PP. 27-54 (In Persian)

73. Dekmejian, H, 1988, Contemporary Islamic Movements in the Arab World, translated by Hamid Ahmadi, Tehran: Kayhan. (In Persian)

74. Dutheri, T., 2006, Syria, Translated by M. Khalili, Ghoghnoos, Tehran. (In Persian)

75. Zolfaghari, S. M., 2010, The Muslim Brotherhood Movement in the Middle East, Quarterly Journal of Regional Studies, No. 3. (In Persian)

76. Zolfaghari, S. M., 2011, Revisiting Political Islam in Tunisia, Journal of Regional Studies, No. 6, PP. 106-129. (In Persian)

77. Diyanat, M., Abbasi, M., and Farhadi, M., 2018, An Analysis of the Relationship between Economic Indicators and Tendency toward Radical Islam in Central Asia,Central Eurasia Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, PP. 101-121. (In Persian)

78. Rafat, Y., 2001, “Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan”, Translated by A. H. Barakzai, Tehran: Ehsan. (In Persian)

79. Zanganeh, S., and Karimi, H., 2017, The History of Jihadist Groups in Iraqi Kurdistan, Foreign Policy Quarterly, No. 2. (In Persian)

80. Sajedi, A., and Ranjbar, R., 2015, The Role of Egyptian Militants in the Developments of the July 2011 Revolution, Vol. 5, No. 1. (In Persian)

81. Suleiman, M., 2016, Is the Muslim Brotherhood moving to the Internal Collapse? Wahington: Policy Analysis. (In Persian)

82. Sanaei, M., 2012, The Islamic Trends in Central Asia, Iras Monthly Journal, No. 10.

83. Sayyed Qutb, 2011, Neshanaha- e- Rah, Translated by M. Mahmudi, Ehsan, Tehran. (In Persian)

84. Enayat, H., 2002, A Survey of Arabic Political Thought, Amir Kabir Press, Tehran.

85. Fowzi, Y., and Hashemi, S. A., 2014, Islamist Political Movements and Internal Challenges in Jordan, Political Sociology of the Islamic World, Vol. 3, No. 1, PP. 1-28.

86. Fawzi, Y., 2012, The Causes of the Formation and Nature of Political Movements in the Middle East: Case Study of Political Movements in Yemen, Studies of the Islamic World, Vol. 1, No. 1.

87. Fairahi, D., and Askari Sadr, A., 2018, Causes of failure of the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt after Mubarak's Overthrow, Political Science, Vol. 21, No. 82. (In Persian)

88. Kepel, G, 1996, The Prophet and the Pharaoh, translated by Hamid Ahmadi, Tehran: Kayhan. (In Persian)

89. Karimi, H., 2018, Geopolitics, Islamic Fundamentalism, and Radicalism, Raz-e Nahan,Tehran. (In Persian)

90. Koulaie, E., and Bloorchizadeh, M., 1977, Transforming the Role and Position of Sufism in Central Asia, Central Eurasia Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2.

91. Muhammadi, E. et al., 2011, The Muslim Brotherhood of Yemen,: Andhishe Sazan Noor,Tehran. (In Persian)

92. Muhammadi, E. et al., 2011, The Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt, Andhishe Sazan Noor, Tehran. (In Persian)

93. Mahmoudian, M., 2012, Muslim Brotherhood and the Future of Foreign Policy of Egypt, Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 15, No.1, PP. 103-125. (In Persian)

94. Mahmudi, E., 2015, The Genealogy of the Emergence of Jihadi Groups in Iraqi Kurdistan, Zaribar Quarterly, 19, No. 88, PP. 164-174. (In Persian)

95. Moradi, V., 2012, Pattern of Political Behavior of Muslim Brotherhood after the January 25 Revolution in Islamic Awakening, Iranian and Western Considerations, Edited by A. Eftekhari, Imam Jafar Sadeg University Press. (In Persian)

96. Masoudnia, H., and Foroughi, A., 2013, A look at the Role of Islamist Groups in Somalia, Islamic World Studies, No. 3. (In Persian)

97. Mostafa, H., 2006, A Road to al-Qaeda, Azadmehr, Tehran. (In Persian)

98. Mallaekeh, S. H., and Hosseini, S. M. A., 2016, The Causes of Failure of Brotherhood in Establishing a Stable Government in Egypt, Journal of Political and International Studies, Islamic Azad University, No. 26, PP. 55-81. (In Persian)

99. Michel, R., 2010, The History of the Muslim Brotherhood from the Beginning to Today, Translated by S. H. Khosroshahi, Tehran: Center for Documents and Diplomacy History.

  1. Nadavi, A., 2000, A word with the Muslim Brotherhood, Translated by Z. Wasi, Ehsan, Tehran. (In Persian)
  2. Ahmad Rashid, J., 2002, The Rise of militant Islsm in Central Asia, Yale Univercity, Press. PP. 134.
  3. Alexander, C., 2010, Tunisia: stability and Reform in the Modern Maghreb, Rutledge.
  4. Brusse, W.A., and Schoonenboon, j., 2006, Islamic Activism and Democratization, ISIM Review, No.18, P. 8.
  5. Cohen، S.B.(1991)."Global Geopolitical Change in the Post – cold War Era.Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol.81, No.4, PP. 551 – 580.
  6. Collins, J., 2000, Military Geography, Washington, D.C. (USA): National Defense University.
  7. Cook, S. A., 2007, Ruling but Not Governing, The Military and Political Development in Egypt, Algeria, and Turkey, The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  8. Dodds, K., 2000, Geopolitics in a Changing World, Pearson Education Limited, England.
  9. Karagiannis, E., 2006, Political Islam in Uzbakistan: Hizb Ut – tahrir al – Islamic, Europe – Asia Studies, Vol. 58, No. 2, P. 266.
  10. Gray, M., 2010, Conspiracy Theories in the Arab World: Sources and Politics, Rutledge.
  11. Hedges, M., and Cafiero, G., 2017, The GCC and the Muslim Brotherhood: What does the future hold? The Middle East Policy. Vol.  24.
  12. No 1. pp. 129-153.
  13. Johnston, R. J., 1990, Review of J. A. Agnew and J.S.Duncan (Ends), The Power of Place (Boston and London: Unwin Hyman, 1989), In Progress in Human Geography, No. 14, PP. 447 – 8.
  14. Khatab, S., 2006, The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb, Rutledge, London.
  15. McGregory,A. 2010, Islamic Movements in the Horn of Africa, The Jamestown Foundation.
  16. Muscara, L., 2005, Territory as a Psychosomatic Device: Guttmann's Ki-netic Political Geography, Geographers, No. 10, PP. 26 -49.
  17. Roberts, D., 2014, Qatar and the Muslim Brotherhood, Pragmatism or
  18. Preference? "Journal of Middle East Policy. Vol. 21. No3.pp 84-94.
  19. Sack, R.D. (1983).' Human territoriality: A Theory', Annals of the Association of American Geographers (73) 55- 74.
  20. Shiv Malik, 2004, For Allah and the caliphate, New Statesman.
  21. Wright, R., 2008, Dreams and Shadows: the Future Of The Middle East, Penguin Press.
  22. Zollner, Barbara H. E., 2009, The Moslem Brotherhood, Hasan al Hudaybi and Ideology, Rutledge, London.