Phenomenological analysis of the negative effects of industrial estates on the lived experience of the indigenous people of the village (Case study of Khairabad Arak industrial )

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc of geographic and rural planning of Shahidbeheshti university

2 MSc of economics, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University

3 professor of Human Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran


Based on rural development literature, rural industrialization is expected to lead to positive changes in employment, income, health status, education, and other socio-economic indicators of rural life. but it seems that industrialization if it is an industrial state, can have devastating social, cultural, environmental, and physical effects on the lives of people in local communities. in this regard, some studies that have examined the effects of industrial state on rural development, in their assessments have paid more attention to the positive effects, and they only briefly mention some of the negative effects of it on rural development. one reason for this is that there is no comprehensive theory of the negative consequences of industrialization. Another reason is that most studies have used, quantitative approaches and objective indicators to evaluate this phenomenon. consequently, it has not been possible to examine all dimensions, especially its negative effects, in the form of a questionnaire.
Thus the question is, what are the negative consequences of this kind of industrialization on the indigenous people of the industrialized villages? This is important because it seems that in Iran, rural industrialization policies such as the construction of industrial state that plan makers consider, due to the negative consequences of stabilizing the population, rural settlements have not been very successful, and the identification of these consequences can be considered in the adoption of future policies and the determination of the path of industrialization. The importance of this issue is further enhanced when previous studies have shown that researchers with prior knowledge of the negative effects of industrial state and by evaluating these effects on rural development have examined it, and not based on the lived experience of local people who are directly involved in this phenomenon. These studies, with pre-existing theories and quantitative approaches, assess the significant effects of this phenomenon on the village as positive. Therefore, recognizing and analyzing this experience may be necessary for further modeling and more attention to this issue.
Hence, a qualitative approach has been used to identify and understand the negative effects of this phenomenon, and Kheirabad village of Markazi province was examined as a case study of an industrial village. Among the qualitative approaches, phenomenology has been used because the goal is to discover and create a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of industrialization experienced by active actors.
The logic of previous domestic studies in the field of industrialization effects on rural development has been based on positivist approaches, and these approaches, such as the natural sciences approach, consider the confrontation and understanding of a phenomenon based solely on logical analysis of sensory experience and scientific concepts. That is, the study of objective phenomena experimentally and without value, and then the discovery of the law governing it with universal causal models. In the positivist approach, to explain and predict, there is a need for objective criteria and specific definitions of the phenomenon under study, and the researcher limits the phenomenon in the form of their definition and hypothesis. But the mission of phenomenology is not defined apart from the lives and lived experiences by individuals. In this approach, the fundamental task of science, especially the humanities, is to return to the world of human life and to understand they experience the world. People's lived experience is always mixed with people's emotions, feelings, and attitudes and cannot be ignored.
Therefore, given the nature of the phenomenological research method, it means recognizing the lived experiences or first-hand experiences of certain people (here local people of the village), as well as the issue of the present study, which understands the negative effects of the industrial zones not from the researcher's point of view but the point of view of local people involved with the phenomenon. consequently, the phenomenological method can reveal this by gaining first-hand experiences through interviews with the natives of the village.
In this essay, semi-structured interviews were used to collect data and after the interview, the major and important statements of the participants, which represent different horizons of a phenomenon, were identified and coded using open, central, and selective coding. It was then categorized using larger horizons or statements in larger intelligence units called basic themes. These themes represent different dimensions of the phenomenon.
Results and discussion:
The results obtained using the phenomenological method have shown that negative effects in the form of themes of Reducing social security, unbalanced expansion of urban landscapes in the village, changing and weakening the indigenous culture of the village, unbalanced regional population growth, increasing environmental pollution, economic instability of the village, lack of economic capacity for women, loss of rural tourism capacities has been experienced for the local peoples of the village, which has been less of a concern to theorists.
These results show that previous studies have correctly identified some of these negative effects, including environmental pollution, changes in household consumption patterns, air pollution, groundwater and noise pollution, loss of rural natural resources, and the non-indigenous nature of labor, rural migration to cities, declining tourism, declining friendship and intimacy between people, consumerism of rural people, declining agricultural sector have been considered, but many other effects did not consider such as sub-themes of reduced security, rural-urban transformation, cultural change Indigenous people of the village, lack of economic capacity for women and unbalanced distribution.
According to the results of this study, the dimensions of the negative effects of the industrial zone on the local people of the village are far beyond what is available to researchers by default. Therefore, this essay proposes that policymakers in the field of rural development should be careful to create and expand industrial estates because its negative effects seem inevitable. also, instead of industrial estates for rural development, more attention can be paid to the approaches of SME appropriate to the rural environment, entrepreneurship, empowering vulnerable groups, Community-based education, and microfinancing that can ensure balanced regional development, population consolidation, and livelihoods.
Keywords: Industrial estate, negative effects, indigenous people, phenomenology, Kheirabad village


Main Subjects

  1. آزاد، میترا و میرهاشمی روته، سیداحسان، 1395، توسعه و حفاظت در بافت‏های ارزشمند روستایی، با رویکرد به فرهنگ بومی، نشریة مسکن و محیط روستا، دورة 35، شمارة 154، صص 89-106.
  2. اعرابی، سیدمحمد و بودلایی، حسن، 1390، راهبرد تحقیق پدیدارشناسی، فصل‏نامة روششناسی علوم انسانی، سال 17، شمارة 67، صص ۳۱-58.
  3. پاپلی یزدی، محمدحسین و ابراهیمی، محمد امیر، 1392، نظریه‏های توسعة روستایی، تهران: سمت
  4. پورطاهری مهدی, رکن الدین افتخاری عبدالرضا, نقوی محمدرضا، 1392، نقش شهرک های صنعتی در توسعه اقتصادی روستاهای پیرامون، تحقیقات جغرافیایی، دوره 28 , شماره  3 ، صص 103-116.
  5. جلالی، رستم، 1391، نمونه‏گیری در پژوهش‏های کیفی، مجلة تحقیقات کیفی در علوم سلامت، جلد ۱، شمارة ۴، صص 310-۳۲۰.
  6. حمزه‏ئی، مجید؛ شایان، حمید و بوزرجمهری، خدیجه، 1393، ارزیابی آثار اجتماعی شهرک‏های صنعتی بر ناحیه‏های روستایی (مورد: شهرک صنعتی خیام نیشابور)، فصل‏نامة اقتصاد فضا و توسعة روستایی، سال سوم، شمارة 3، صص ۱۶۳-149.
  7. خوش‏فر، غلام‏رضا؛ محمدی، آرزو؛ محمدزاده، فاطمه؛ محمدی، راضیه و اکبرزاده، فاطمه، 1393، امنیت اجتماعی و سلامت اجتماعی، مجلة مطالعات اجتماعی ایران، دورة نهم، شمارة 1، صص ۷۱-102.
  8. سرور امینی، شبنم؛ اسدی، علی و کلانتری، خلیل، 1389، بررسی آثار شهرک صنعتی اشتهارد بر توسعة روستاهای همجوار، نشریة اقتصاد و توسعة کشاورزی، سال بیست‏وچهارم، جلد 24، شمارة 2، صص 227-238.
  9. طاهرخانی، مهدی، 1380، نقش نواحی صنعتی در توسعة روستایی (مطالعة موردی: نواحی صنعتی روستایی در استان مرکزی)، نشریة پژوهشهای جغرافیایی، دورة 33، شمارة 40، صص 33-45.
  10. قدیری معصوم، مجتبی و قراگوزلو، هادی، 1390، نقش نواحی صنعتی در توسعة اقتصادی و اجتماعی سکونتگاه‏های روستایی (مطالعة موردی: ناحیة صنعتی خورآباد، استان قم)، فصل‏نامة اقتصاد و فضا و توسعة روستایی، سال یکم، شمارة دو، صص ۱-14.
  11. کاظمی، سیدحسین و دانایی‏فرد، حسن، 1390، پژوهش‏های تفسیری در سازمان: استراتژیهای پدیدارشناسی و پدیدارنگاری، تهران: نشر دانشگاه امام صادق (ع).
  12. لیست واحد‏های صنعتی مستقر در شهرک‏ها و نواحی صنعتی، 1398، شرکت شهرک‏های صنعتی استان مرکزی.
  13. مهاجرانی، علی‏اصغر؛ حقیقتیان، منصور و یوسف‏نیا، مهدی، 1395، بررسی تأثیر راهبرد تبدیل روستا به شهر بر سبک زندگی افراد در روستاهای نشتیفان، سلامی و جنگل در استان خراسان رضوی، فصل‏نامة راهبردهای توسعة روستایی، جلد 3، شمارة 4، صص ۴۶۵-473.
  14. میرزاعلی، محمد و عسگری، ابوالفضل، 1394، بررسی آثار شهرک‏های صنعتی بر ناحیه‏های روستایی (مطالعة موردی: شهرک صنعتی فراهان)، دومین کنفرانس بین‏المللی علوم جغرافیایی، مؤسسة عالی فناوری خوارزمی.
  15. نیکویی‏فرد، مسعوده و رحمانی، بیژن، 1397، تأثیرات گسترش صنایع کارگاهی و کارخانه‏ای بر توسعة روستایی (نمونة موردی ناحیة صنعتی خیرآباد، شهرستان اراک)، پایان‏نامة کارشناسی ارشد رشتة برنامه‏ریزی توسعة روستایی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران.
  16. Azad, M. and Mir Hashemi Roteh, S. E., 2016, Development and Protection in Valuable Rural environments, with an Approach to Indigenous Culture, Journal of Housing and Rural Environment, Vol. 35, No. 154, pp. 89-106. (in Persian)
  17. Arabi, S. M. and Budlaei, H., 2011, Phenomenological Research Strategy, Journal of Humanities Methodology, Vol. 17, No. 67, pp. 31-58 .(in Persian)
  18. Papoli Yazdi, M. H. and Ebrahimi, M.A., 2013, Rural Development Theories, Tehran: Samt Publications .(in Persian)
  19. Pourtaheri Mehdi, Rokoddin Eftekhari Abdolreza, Naghavi Mohammadreza, 2013, The role of industrial estates in the economic development of surrounding villages, Geographical Research, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 103-116.
  20. Jalali, R., 2012, Sampling in qualitative research, Journal of Qualitative Research in Health Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 310-320. (in Persian)
  21. Hamzehie, M.; Shayan, H. and Bouzarjamahri, Kh., 2014, Evaluation of Social Effects of Industrial Towns on Rural Areas, Case: Khayyam Neishabour Industrial Town, Journal of Space Economics and Rural Development, Third Year, No. 3, pp. 149-163.(in Persian)
  22. Khoshfar, Gh.; Mohammadi, A.; Mohammadzadeh, F.; Mohammadi, Ra. and Akbarzadeh, F., 2014, Social Security and Social Health, Iranian Journal of Social Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 71-102. (in Persian)
  23. Sarvar Amini, Sh.; Asadi, A. and Kalantari, Kh., 2010, Investigating the effect of Eshtehard Industrial estate on the Development of Neighboring Villages, Journal of Economics and Agricultural Development, Year 24, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 227-238. (in Persian)
  24. Taherkhani, M., 2001, The Role of Industrial estates in Rural Development (Case Study: Rural Industrial estates in Markazi Province), Journal of Geographical Research, Vol. 33, No. 40, pp. 33-45. (in Persian)
  25. Qadiri Masoum, M. and Qaraguzlu, H., 2011, The role of industrial estates in economic and social development of rural settlements (Case study: Khurabad industrial zone, Qom province), Journal of Economics and Space and Rural Development, Year 1, No. 2, pp. 1- 14 .(in Persian)
  26. Kazemi, S. H. and Danaeifard, H., 2011, Interpretive Research in Organization: Phenomenology Strategies, , Tehran: Imam Sadegh University Press. (in Persian)
  27. List of industrial units located in towns and industrial estates, 2020, Markazi Province Industrial Towns Company .(in Persian)
  28. Mohajerani, A.; Haghighatian, M. and Yousefnia, M., 2016, Investigating the effect of village-to-city conversion strategy on people's lifestyles in Nashtifan, Salami and Jangal villages in Khorasan Razavi province, Journal of Rural Development Strategies, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 465-473. (in Persian)
  29. Mirza Ali, M. and Asgari, A., 2015, Investigating the effect of industrial estate on rural development (Case Study: Farahan Industrial Town), 2nd International Conference on Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi Higher Institute of Technology, Shiraz, Iran. (in Persian)
  30. Nikoyifard, M. and Rahmani, B, 2019, Impacts of Manufacturing and Industrial Activities on Rural Development (Case Study: Industrial Zone of Kheirabad, Shahrestan-e-Arak), Master's thesis in rural development planning, Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran .(in Persian)
  31. Ajjawi, R. and Higgs, J., 2007, Using hermeneutic phenomenology to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate clinical reasoning. The Qualitative Report, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 612-638.
  32. Bechara, L. and Magrini, A., (2009), Eco-Industrial park Development in the Riodeganeiro Brazil ,Journal of Cleaner Production, May 2009, 17(7):653-661 · Chiu.SY. (2008): Agricultural Trade Reform and Rural Prosperity
  33. Cuchiloi, 2005, M. Chapter 3. Rural to urban migration. Institute of developing economics Japan external trade organization (IED.JETRQ). Hanoi. Vietnam.
  34. Das, R. and Das Ashim, K., 2011, Industrial Cluster: An Approachfor Rural Development in North East India, International , Journal ofTrade, Economics and Financ, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 161-165 ISSN: 2010-023X.
  35. Fesel, B. and Söndermann, M., 2007, Culture and Creative Industries In Germany, German Commission For UNESCO, Published With The Financial Support Of The Federal Foreign Office Of The Federal Republic Of Germany.
  36. Hong, U., 2011, A Stady on the Patterns of Rural Industrial Development in China, Progress in Geograhy, 29, Issue 12, pp. 1597-1605.
  37. Kishore, C., 2004, Rural non-farm activities in specific regions of Orissa, Journal of Rural Development, No. 16, pp. 457-464.
  38. Kumar, S., 2005, Rural Development through RuralIndustrialization: Exploring the Chinese Experience.
  39. Lee, S., 2007, Diversification of the Rural Economy: A Case Study on Rural Industrialization in the Republic of Korea, Pyongyang: INSES.
  40. Neuman, W.L. 2014. Social research methods:qualitative and quantitative approaches. University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Second edition.
  41. Singhal, S. and Kapar, A., 2002, In India- an integrated approach towards industrial ecology. Journal of Environmental Management, 66.
  42. Wang, X., 2001, Practicum Report Rural Industrialization in China, Saint Marys University.
  43. Wang, M.; Webber, M.; Finlayson, M. and Barnett, J., 2008, Rural Industries and Water Pollution in China, Journal of Environmental Management, Issue 4, pp 648-659.
Volume 54, Issue 1
January 2022
Pages 1-19
  • Receive Date: 17 September 2019
  • Revise Date: 07 May 2020
  • Accept Date: 07 May 2020
  • First Publish Date: 21 March 2022