Document Type : Research Paper
MSc of geographic and rural planning of Shahidbeheshti university
MSc of economics, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University
professor of Human Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran
Based on rural development literature, rural industrialization is expected to lead to positive changes in employment, income, health status, education, and other socio-economic indicators of rural life. but it seems that industrialization if it is an industrial state, can have devastating social, cultural, environmental, and physical effects on the lives of people in local communities. in this regard, some studies that have examined the effects of industrial state on rural development, in their assessments have paid more attention to the positive effects, and they only briefly mention some of the negative effects of it on rural development. one reason for this is that there is no comprehensive theory of the negative consequences of industrialization. Another reason is that most studies have used, quantitative approaches and objective indicators to evaluate this phenomenon. consequently, it has not been possible to examine all dimensions, especially its negative effects, in the form of a questionnaire.
Thus the question is, what are the negative consequences of this kind of industrialization on the indigenous people of the industrialized villages? This is important because it seems that in Iran, rural industrialization policies such as the construction of industrial state that plan makers consider, due to the negative consequences of stabilizing the population, rural settlements have not been very successful, and the identification of these consequences can be considered in the adoption of future policies and the determination of the path of industrialization. The importance of this issue is further enhanced when previous studies have shown that researchers with prior knowledge of the negative effects of industrial state and by evaluating these effects on rural development have examined it, and not based on the lived experience of local people who are directly involved in this phenomenon. These studies, with pre-existing theories and quantitative approaches, assess the significant effects of this phenomenon on the village as positive. Therefore, recognizing and analyzing this experience may be necessary for further modeling and more attention to this issue.
Hence, a qualitative approach has been used to identify and understand the negative effects of this phenomenon, and Kheirabad village of Markazi province was examined as a case study of an industrial village. Among the qualitative approaches, phenomenology has been used because the goal is to discover and create a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of industrialization experienced by active actors.
The logic of previous domestic studies in the field of industrialization effects on rural development has been based on positivist approaches, and these approaches, such as the natural sciences approach, consider the confrontation and understanding of a phenomenon based solely on logical analysis of sensory experience and scientific concepts. That is, the study of objective phenomena experimentally and without value, and then the discovery of the law governing it with universal causal models. In the positivist approach, to explain and predict, there is a need for objective criteria and specific definitions of the phenomenon under study, and the researcher limits the phenomenon in the form of their definition and hypothesis. But the mission of phenomenology is not defined apart from the lives and lived experiences by individuals. In this approach, the fundamental task of science, especially the humanities, is to return to the world of human life and to understand they experience the world. People's lived experience is always mixed with people's emotions, feelings, and attitudes and cannot be ignored.
Therefore, given the nature of the phenomenological research method, it means recognizing the lived experiences or first-hand experiences of certain people (here local people of the village), as well as the issue of the present study, which understands the negative effects of the industrial zones not from the researcher's point of view but the point of view of local people involved with the phenomenon. consequently, the phenomenological method can reveal this by gaining first-hand experiences through interviews with the natives of the village.
In this essay, semi-structured interviews were used to collect data and after the interview, the major and important statements of the participants, which represent different horizons of a phenomenon, were identified and coded using open, central, and selective coding. It was then categorized using larger horizons or statements in larger intelligence units called basic themes. These themes represent different dimensions of the phenomenon.
Results and discussion:
The results obtained using the phenomenological method have shown that negative effects in the form of themes of Reducing social security, unbalanced expansion of urban landscapes in the village, changing and weakening the indigenous culture of the village, unbalanced regional population growth, increasing environmental pollution, economic instability of the village, lack of economic capacity for women, loss of rural tourism capacities has been experienced for the local peoples of the village, which has been less of a concern to theorists.
These results show that previous studies have correctly identified some of these negative effects, including environmental pollution, changes in household consumption patterns, air pollution, groundwater and noise pollution, loss of rural natural resources, and the non-indigenous nature of labor, rural migration to cities, declining tourism, declining friendship and intimacy between people, consumerism of rural people, declining agricultural sector have been considered, but many other effects did not consider such as sub-themes of reduced security, rural-urban transformation, cultural change Indigenous people of the village, lack of economic capacity for women and unbalanced distribution.
According to the results of this study, the dimensions of the negative effects of the industrial zone on the local people of the village are far beyond what is available to researchers by default. Therefore, this essay proposes that policymakers in the field of rural development should be careful to create and expand industrial estates because its negative effects seem inevitable. also, instead of industrial estates for rural development, more attention can be paid to the approaches of SME appropriate to the rural environment, entrepreneurship, empowering vulnerable groups, Community-based education, and microfinancing that can ensure balanced regional development, population consolidation, and livelihoods.
Keywords: Industrial estate, negative effects, indigenous people, phenomenology, Kheirabad village