نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران
2 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The events of recent years in most regions of the world indicate that geographical factors and geopolitical components are still important and influential in shaping the quality of relations between countries to achieve national goals and interests .Among these regions ,is the geopolitical region of latin America, whose political - security landscape has several factors,some of which have roots in the regions' geographical and geopolitical conditions. Given this importance , the present article seeks to examine the role and function of geographical and geopolitical factors among Latin American political units at the regional level. According to the results of this study, the geopolitical relations in Latin American countries, influenced by the geopolitical and geographical components of the region,especially the peaceful relations governing the relations between Brazil and Argentina as important regional powers, are based on the pattern of interaction. And future view indicates that given the region's geographical and geopolitical privilege , Latin American countries , and especially Brazil as a regional leader , is capable of sustaining interactions and regional strategic management. At the same time , due to the calm Space of this region , the necessary conditions for the creation of a unified regional identity are provided . Under these circumstances , the Latin American region will overcome its current geopolitical margin and will reach a stage of integration and consolidation . And the pattern of its geopolitical relations will be based on continuity relationship , which will increase the geopolitical weight of the region and be more in line with developments in the peripheral and global geopolitical system .
The research method is applied in nature and is of analytical-explanatory The method of data collection has been done through libraries (books, articles), websites and inferential analysis,
The research question and hypothesis is also set out as follows:
Research Question: What are the geographical and geopolitical components of relationship formation in Latin America? Also what basis is the pattern of Latin American geopolitical relations at the regional level?
Results and discussion
Latin American countries seek to prevent the domination and interference of different actors in the region through the process of balancing their regional power so as to ensure their path of progress, peace and stability through regional peace and integration. . Because the main context of regional and trans-regional threats , on the eve of the 21 st century, it is more affected by geographical location and geopolitical condition.
After decades of tension and suspicion, better relations between Brazil and Argentina have been established. Their trade has increased compared to the past, with Brazil exporting a variety of manufactured products in return for agricultural products. Nearly a quarter of Brazil's exports of goods to Latin America were sent to Argentina in the late 1980s. Relations between Latin American countries are influenced by factors that exist in relations between the political units of the region, especially Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, and are generally explored within the context of co-operation resources and peaceful relations. Elements such as high geopolitical weight, geographical sources of cooperation (proximity-neighborhood), geopolitical resources, geopolitical identities, regional unions and organizations, and their effective performance in creating convergence, geopolitics of globalization, overlapping elements of convergence, high degree of stability, ... are important geopolitical and geographical factors that have shaped the geopolitical relations between the important powers of this region based on an interactive relationship. Based on this relation, the convergence elements dominate the divergence components. Considering the region's capabilities from a cultural point of view (the common colonial and historical roots of the region's members, the religion and language common to the majority of countries in the region), from a hydropolic perspective (according to statistics and reports published more than one-third of the world's freshwater resources atLatin American countries), economically (abundance of fossil and non-fossil fuel sources and other strategic resources, Venezuela has the world's largest oil resources), strategically and geographically (majority of countries in this region have access to of free water, Favorable climate and climate variability, fertile lands, etc.).
This will allow the region to have a profound impact on its environment and on global issues. On the other hand, these privileges, and how they can best be used, require the stability and continuity of good relations between countries in the region.
The countries of South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico in North America belong to the Latin American region in terms of geographical credibility, historical roots, liberation from colonial domination, political orientation, cultural interactions, economic relations. So There is a geopolitical area in Latin America. Due to the calmness of the region and the limitations of passive disputes and crises and the existence of geographical and cultural linkages and interconnections, the prevailing atmosphere diverges from the tensions and hostile relations of decades ago and provides the basis for regional engagement , has constructed And in the light of regional cooperation and the constructive relations of regional powers, an interactive pattern has emerged between regional political units.
The end result that with having geographical, historical, cultural linkages, increased regional self-awareness, the existence of common geopolitical codes, the growth of regional convergence in the form of important and strategic alliances such as the Slack organization, the Unasaur Union, Mercosur, the Alba Union ,... Countries in the region will step in to stabilize relations and promote regional peace and stability, and their dominant model of geopolitical relations will be a continuum model. As a result: peace, political and economic development of these regions will add to the geopolitical stability of the peripheral and global system.In fact, Latin America is passing through the crisis of geopolitical transition and reaching the stage of geopolitical stabilization and continuity, the important and remarkable role played by this region in various aspects of world system developments.
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