Explaining the function of geographical and geopolitical components of the formation of relations In the geopolitical region of Latin America

Document Type : Research Paper


1 University Of Tehran

2 University of Tehran


The events of recent years in most regions of the world indicate that geographical factors and geopolitical components are still important and influential in shaping the quality of relations between countries to achieve national goals and interests .Among these regions ,is the geopolitical region of latin America, whose political - security landscape has several factors,some of which have roots in the regions' geographical and geopolitical conditions. Given this importance , the present article seeks to examine the role and function of geographical and geopolitical factors among Latin American political units at the regional level. According to the results of this study, the geopolitical relations in Latin American countries, influenced by the geopolitical and geographical components of the region,especially the peaceful relations governing the relations between Brazil and Argentina as important regional powers, are based on the pattern of interaction. And future view indicates that given the region's geographical and geopolitical privilege , Latin American countries , and especially Brazil as a regional leader , is capable of sustaining interactions and regional strategic management. At the same time , due to the calm Space of this region , the necessary conditions for the creation of a unified regional identity are provided . Under these circumstances , the Latin American region will overcome its current geopolitical margin and will reach a stage of integration and consolidation . And the pattern of its geopolitical relations will be based on continuity relationship , which will increase the geopolitical weight of the region and be more in line with developments in the peripheral and global geopolitical system .
The research method is applied in nature and is of analytical-explanatory The method of data collection has been done through libraries (books, articles), websites and inferential analysis,
The research question and hypothesis is also set out as follows:
Research Question: What are the geographical and geopolitical components of relationship formation in Latin America? Also what basis is the pattern of Latin American geopolitical relations at the regional level?
Results and discussion
Latin American countries seek to prevent the domination and interference of different actors in the region through the process of balancing their regional power so as to ensure their path of progress, peace and stability through regional peace and integration. . Because the main context of regional and trans-regional threats , on the eve of the 21 st century, it is more affected by geographical location and geopolitical condition.
After decades of tension and suspicion, better relations between Brazil and Argentina have been established. Their trade has increased compared to the past, with Brazil exporting a variety of manufactured products in return for agricultural products. Nearly a quarter of Brazil's exports of goods to Latin America were sent to Argentina in the late 1980s. Relations between Latin American countries are influenced by factors that exist in relations between the political units of the region, especially Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, and are generally explored within the context of co-operation resources and peaceful relations. Elements such as high geopolitical weight, geographical sources of cooperation (proximity-neighborhood), geopolitical resources, geopolitical identities, regional unions and organizations, and their effective performance in creating convergence, geopolitics of globalization, overlapping elements of convergence, high degree of stability, ... are important geopolitical and geographical factors that have shaped the geopolitical relations between the important powers of this region based on an interactive relationship. Based on this relation, the convergence elements dominate the divergence components. Considering the region's capabilities from a cultural point of view (the common colonial and historical roots of the region's members, the religion and language common to the majority of countries in the region), from a hydropolic perspective (according to statistics and reports published more than one-third of the world's freshwater resources atLatin American countries), economically (abundance of fossil and non-fossil fuel sources and other strategic resources, Venezuela has the world's largest oil resources), strategically and geographically (majority of countries in this region have access to of free water, Favorable climate and climate variability, fertile lands, etc.).
This will allow the region to have a profound impact on its environment and on global issues. On the other hand, these privileges, and how they can best be used, require the stability and continuity of good relations between countries in the region.
The countries of South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico in North America belong to the Latin American region in terms of geographical credibility, historical roots, liberation from colonial domination, political orientation, cultural interactions, economic relations. So There is a geopolitical area in Latin America. Due to the calmness of the region and the limitations of passive disputes and crises and the existence of geographical and cultural linkages and interconnections, the prevailing atmosphere diverges from the tensions and hostile relations of decades ago and provides the basis for regional engagement , has constructed And in the light of regional cooperation and the constructive relations of regional powers, an interactive pattern has emerged between regional political units.
The end result that with having geographical, historical, cultural linkages, increased regional self-awareness, the existence of common geopolitical codes, the growth of regional convergence in the form of important and strategic alliances such as the Slack organization, the Unasaur Union, Mercosur, the Alba Union ,... Countries in the region will step in to stabilize relations and promote regional peace and stability, and their dominant model of geopolitical relations will be a continuum model. As a result: peace, political and economic development of these regions will add to the geopolitical stability of the peripheral and global system.In fact, Latin America is passing through the crisis of geopolitical transition and reaching the stage of geopolitical stabilization and continuity, the important and remarkable role played by this region in various aspects of world system developments.


Main Subjects

  1. احمدی نوحدانی، سیروس، ۱۳۹۲، الگویابیشخصیتسیاسیفضاهایجغرافیاییحایل،موردمطالعه:ایران، رسالة دکتری رشتة جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.
  2. ارغوانی پیرسلامی، فریبرز؛ اسماعیلی، مرتضی و بهزاد آقایی، ابوذر، ۱۳۹۴، امریکا و چالش قدرت در امریکای لاتین: مقایسة رویکرد ایران و چین، فصل‏نامة پژوهشهای راهبردی سیاست، س ۴، ش ۱۵، صص 95-۱۲۴.
  3. اسعد، سهیل، ۱۳۹۱، فضای فرهنگی و اجتماعی امریکای لاتین: یک‏پارچه در ظاهر، ماه‏نامة زمانه، مؤسسة فرهنگی دانش و اندیشة معاصر، ش ۲۵ و ۲۶، صص: ۷۰-۷۱.
  4. پورپشنگ، زهرا، ۱۳۸۷، امریکای لاتین: نقـش و جایگـاه آن در آینـدة نظـام بـینالملل، انتشارات دفتر مطالعات سیاسی و بین‏المللی وزارت امور خارجه.
  5. جمشیدی، محمد حسین و نقدی، فرزانه، ۱۳۹۶، فرهنگ به‏مثابة قدرت در روابط بین‏الملل (قدرت فرهنگ در برابر فرهنگ قدرت)، فصل‏نامة علمی‏- پژوهشی سیاستجهانی، دورة ۶، ش ۱، صص 7-۴۱.
  6. حافظ‏نیا، محمدرضا و رزقانی، سیدهادی، ۱۳۹۱، چالش‏های ژئوپلیتیکی هم‏گرایی در جهان اسلام، فصل‏نامة پژوهشهای علوم انسانی، ش ۸۰، صص 139-۱۵۴.
  7. حافظ‏نیا، محمدرضا و کاویانی راد، مراد، ۱۳۸۳، افقهایجدیددرجغرافیایسیاسی، تهران: سمت.
  8. حافظ‏نیا، محمدرضا، ۱۳۸۵، اصولومفاهیمژئوپلیتیک، مشهد: پاپلی.
  9. حسین‏پور پویان، رضا، ۱۳۹۰، تبیین الگوی روابط در مناطق ژئوپلیتیک(مطالعةموردی:شبهقارةهند)، رسالة دکتری رشتة جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.
  10. خسروی، ملک‏تاج و سندگل، احمد، ۱۳۹۰، تأثیر چپ‏گرایی نوین در امریکای لاتین بر مناسبات سیاسی‏‏- امنیتی این کشورها با ایالات متحدة امریکا، فصل‏نامة مطالعات روابط بینالملل (پژوهشنامة روابط بینالملل)، دورة ۴، ش ۱۵، صص 91-۱۱۸.
  11. دهشیری، محمدرضا و سیفی، عبدالرضا، ۱۳۹۱، سلاک؛ فرصت‏ها و چالش‏های پیش رو، فصل‏نامة مطالعات سیاسی و اجتماعی جهان، دورة ۲، ش ۲، صص 233-۲۵۶.
  12. ربیعی، حسین، ۱۳۸۸، نقش قدرت منطقه‏ای در حل و فصل منازعات سرزمینی مورد: ایران در منطقة خلیج فارس در دهةهفتاد میلادی، رسالة دکتری رشتة جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس.
  13. رسولی ثانی‏آبادی، الهام، ۱۳۹۳، تحلیل روند منطقه‏گرایی در امریکای لاتین براساس نظریه‏های روابط بین‏الملل، فصل‏نامة پژوهشهایراهبردیسیاست، س ۳، ش ۱۰، صص 157-۱۸۴.
  14. رضایی، حسن، ۱۳۹۰، امریکای لاتین؛ از دور، از نزدیک، مجلة پژوهشهای منطقه‏ای، س ۳، ش ۸، صص ۷-17.
  15. سازمان جغرافیایی نیروهای مسلح، ۱۳۹۰، جغرافیای کشورهای جهان(برزیل)، تهران: زیتون سبز.
  16. سلیمی، حسین؛ دهقانی فیروزآبادی، سیدجلال و پوراسماعیلی، نجمیه، ۱۳۹۶، مدل و تحلیل رابطة نظام منطقه‏ای و سیاست خارجی، فصل‏نامة بینالمللی ژئوپلیتیک، س ۱۳، ش ۳، صص 1-24.
  17. سنایی، مهدی و ابراهیم‏آبادی، غلام‏رضا، ۱۳۹۲، سازمان قدرت‏های اقتصادی در حال ظهور (بریکس): اهداف، توانمندی‏ها، و جایگاه آن در نظام بین‏المللی، فصل‏نامة مطالعات سیاسی و اجتماعی جهان، دورة ۳، ش ۱، صص 1-۴۰.
  18. شاه‏محمدی، پریسا، ۱۳۸۹، ژئوپلیتیک امریکای لاتین و سیاست جهانی، رویدادها و تحلیلها، ش ۲۵۳، صص 27-۲۹.
  19. عزتی، عزت‏الله، ۱۳۸۶، نظریه‏هایجدیددرجغرافیایسیاسی، تهران: قومس.
  20. کریمی‏پور، یدالله و کامران، حسن، ۱۳۸۰، بستر جغرافیایی تهدیدهای بیرونی مطالعة موردی: حاشیة دریای مازندران، فصل‏نامة تحقیقات جغرافیایی، ش ۶۲، صص 179-۱۹۰.
  21. کریمی‌پور، یدالله و عزیزی، امیر حمزه و ربیعی، حسین و متقی، افشین ( ۱۳۹۷)؛ تبیین مؤلفه‌های اثرگذار بر پیوند استراتژیک کشورها مطالعة موردی؛ ایران و عراق، تحقیقات کاربردی علوم جغرافیایی سال هجدهم، ش 48، صص 21-39.
  22. کوهن، سوئل، ۱۳۸۷، نظامژئوپلیتیکجهانی، ترجمة عباس کاردان، تهران: ابرار معاصر.
  23. کوهینی تفرشی، امیر، ۱۳۹۰، اهمیت ژئوپلیتیک امریکای لاتین، فصل‏نامة پژوهش های منطقه‏ای، ش ۸، صص 227-۲۵۴.
  24. لیک، دیوید و مورگان، پاتریک، ۱۳۹۵، نظمهای منطقه‏ای(امنیتسازیدرجهانینوین)، ترجمة جلال دهقانی فیروزآبادی، تهران: مطالعات راهبردی.
  25. مجتهدزاده، پیروز، ۱۳۸۱، جغرافیایسیاسیوسیاستجغرافیایی، تهران: سمت.
  26. مجتهدزاده، پیروز، ۱۳۹۱، فلسفه و کارکرد ژئوپلیتیک(مفاهیم و نظریه‏ها در عصر مجازی)، تهران: سمت.
  27. محمدی، حمیدرضا و غنجی، محمد، ۱۳۸۵، چالش‏های ژئوپلیتیکی مواد مخدر در جنوب غرب آسیا (با تأکید بر ایران، پاکستان، و افغانستان)، فصل‏نامة بینالمللی ژئوپلیتیک، س ۲، ش ۱( پیایی ۳)، صص 90-۱۲۱.
  28. نوروزی، رسول، ۱۳۹۰، امریکای لاتین، هویت و تمدن (جایگاه استراتژیک امریکای لاتین در نظام بین‏الملل)، مجلة علمی- پژوهشی پژوهشهای منطقه‏ای، ش ۸، صص 99-131.
  29. هتنه، بوردن؛ آندارش، اینوتای و اوزوالدو، سونکل، ۱۳۹۱ الف، منطقهگرایی نو و آیندة امنیت و توسعه، ترجمة علیرضا طیب، تهران: دفتر مطالعات سیاسی بین‏المللی وزارت خارجه.
  30. هتنه، بوردن؛ آندارش، اینوتای و اوزوالدو، سونکل، ۱۳۹۱ ب، مقایسةمنطقهگرایی(نتایجیبرایتوسعةجهان)، ترجمة علیرضا طیب، تهران: دفتر مطالعات سیاسی بین‏المللی وزارت خارجه.
  31. هتنه، بوردن؛ آندارش، اینوتای و اوزوالدو، سونکل، ۱۳۹۱ ج، جهانگرایی و منطقهگرایی نو، ترجمة علیرضا طیب، تهران: دفتر مطالعات سیاسی بین‏المللی وزارت خارجه.
  32. هوارد، ویاردا و هاروی اف، کلاین، ۱۳۸۷، امریکای لاتین،سیاست،حکومت، و توسعه، ترجمة علیرضا قربان‏پور، تهران: مؤسسة فرهنگی مطالعات و تحقیقات بین‏المللی ابرار معاصر ایران.
  33. یوسفی کوپایی، غلام‏حسین؛ یزدانی، عنایت‏الله و امیدی، علی، ۱۳۹۷، تبیین کاربرد قدرت نرم جمهوری اسلامی ایران در منطقة امریکای لاتین؛ روندها و دستاوردها، دوفصل‏نامة علمی- پژوهشی دانش سیاسی، س ۱۴، ش ۳۲ (پیاپی ۲۸)، صص 168-۱۹۸.

34. Ahmadi Nouhdani, S., 2013, Modeling the Political Personality of Geographic Space, Case Study: Iran, Ph.D. in Political Geography, under the guidance of Mohammad Reza Hafeznia,Tarbiat Modares University.

35. Alonso, Á.; Alonso, C. and Hernández, J. I., 2019, Latin American Geopolitics Migration, Cities and Globalizati, Center for International Development Cambridge.

36. Araghwani PirSalami, F.; Ismaili, M. and Behzad Aghaei, A., 2015, America and the Challenge of Power in Latin America: A Comparison of the Iran-China Approach, Strategic Policy Research Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 50, PP. 95-124.

37. Arana, V., 2016, Water and Territory Water and Territory in Latin America Trends, Challenges and Opportunities, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

38. Asad, S., 2012, Lati AmericanCultural and Social Space: Integrated in Appearance, Zamaneh Monthly, Cultural Institute of Contemporary Knowledge and Thought, No. 25 and 26, PP70-71.

39. Barbara, W.; Alberto, G. and Ramon, L., 2014, Water For Food Security And Well-Being In Latin America And The Caribbean Social and Environmental Implications for a Globalized Economy, Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Groupby Routledge London And New York.

40. Barbero, J., 2010, Freight Logistics in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Agenda to Improve Performance, Inter-American Development Bank.

41. Bruckmann, M., 2010, “Alternative Visions of the Indigenous People’s Movement in Latin America: Reflections on Civilization and Modernity”, Social Change, no 4, PP. 601-608.

42. Cohen‏,  S.‏ B., 2009, Geopolitics the Geography of International Relations, Second Edition, Landon, Boulder, New‏ York‏, Toronto.

43. Cohen, S., 2009, The Global Geopolitical System, Translated by: Abbas Kardan, Tehran: Contemporary Gadgets Publications.

44. Collins, J., 1998, Military Geography; for professionals and the public, Washington: National Defense University Press.

45. Dehshiri, M. R. and Seifi, A. R., 2012, Dowry; Opportunities and Challenges Ahead, Quarterly Journal of World Political and Social Studies, Vol. 2, No.2, PP. 233-256.

46. Devlin, R. and Moguillansky, G., 2011, A copublication of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, and the World Bank.

47. Elson, A., 2013, Globalization and Development Why East Asia Surged Ahead and Latin America Fell Behind, First published in the United States, St. Martin, New York.

48. Ezzati, E., 2007, New Theories in Political Geography, Tehran: Ghooms Publications.

49. Ferguson, L., 2010, Tourism Development and Regional Integration in Central America (ARI), Strategic and international studies Elcano Newsletter, Vol. 68, PP. 1-6.

50. Frieden, J.; Pastor, M. and Michael, T., 2000, Modern Political Economy and Latin America Theory and Policy, Published in The United States of America by Westview Press, A Member of the Perseus Books Grou.

51. Geographical Organization of the Armed Forces, 2011, Geography of World Countries (Brazil), Tehran: Publication: Green Olive.

52. Goldstein, J., 1999, International Relations, New York: Longman.

53. Griffiths, M.; OCallaghan, T. and Roach, S., 2002, Interna Ational Relations the Key Concepts, Second Edition, London and New York: Routledge.

54. Guerrero, P.; Lucent, K. and Galarza, S., 2010, Trade Logistics and Regional Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean Asian, Development Bank Institute, Adbi Working, No. 233, PP. 1-43.

55. Hafez Nia, M. R. and Kaviani Rad, M., 2004, New Horizons in Political Geography, Tehran: Smat Publications.

56. Hafez Nia, M. R., 2006, Principles and Concepts of Geopolitics, Mashhad: Papelli Publications.

57. Hafeznia, M. R. and Razghani, S. H., 2012, The Geopolitical Challenges of Convergence in the Islamic World, Quarterly Journal of Humanities Research, No. 80, PP. 139-154.

58. Hatena, B.; Andarsh, I. and Ozwaldu, S., 2012 a, New Regionalism and the Future of Security and Development, Translation: Alireza Tayeb, Tehran: Department of International Political Studies, Department of State.

59. Hatena, B.; Andarsh, I. and Ozwaldu, S., 2012 b, Comparing Regionalism (Results for World Development), Translated by Alireza Tayeb, Tehran: Office of International Political Studies, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

60. Hatena, B.; Andarsh, I. and Ozwaldu, S., 2012 c, New Worldism and Regionalism, Translated by: Alireza Tayeb, Tehran: Office of International Political Studies, Department of State.

61. Hill, C.; London, D. and Pion, B., 2001, Civil- Military Relationsin Latin America New Analytical Perspectives, The University of North Carolina Press.

62. Hosseinpour Pouyan, R., 2011, Explaining the Pattern of Relationships in Geopolitical Areas (Case Study: Indian Subcontinent), PhD Thesis in Political Geography, under the guidance of Pirouz Mojtahedzadeh, Tarbiat Modares University.

63. Howard, V. and Harvey, K., 2008, Latin America, Politics, Governance and Development, Translated by: Alireza Ghorbanpour, Tehran: International Institute for Contemporary Studies and Research.

  1. 64.  https://www.magiran.com.

65. Jamshidi, Mohammad Hossein and Naghdi, Farzaneh, 2017, Culture as Power in International Relations (Power of Culture versus Power of Culture), Quarterly Journal of Global Politics, Vol. 6, No. 1, PP. 7-41.

66. Karimipour, Y. and Kamran, H., 2001, Geographical Background External Threats Case Study: Mazandaran Sea Margins, Journal of Geographical Research, No. 62, PP. 179-190.

67. Karimipour, Yadollah and Azizi, Amir Hamzeh and Rabiee, Hossein and Mottaqi, Afshin (1397); Explain the components affecting the strategic link of countries ,Case study; Iran and Iraq, Applied Research in Geographical Sciences, Year 18, No. 48, pp. 21-39.

68. Keen, B. and Haynes, K., 2009, A History of Latin America Ancient America to 1910 Houghton, Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Boston New York, Vol., 8, No. 1.

69. Khosravi, M. T. and Sandgol, A., 2011, The Impact of Modern Leftism in Latin America on Political Security Relations of these Countries with the United States, Journal of International Relations Studies, Vol. 4, No. 15, PP. 91-118.

70. Lake, D. and  Morgan, P., 2002, Regional Regulations (Securing the New World), Translated by: Jalal Dehghani Firouzabadi, Tehran: Strategic Studies Publication.

71. Mohammadi, H. R. and Ghanji, M., 2006, The Geopolitical Challenges of Drugs in Southwest Asia (with Emphasis on Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan), International Geopolitical Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 1, PP. 90-121.

72. Mojtahedzadeh, P., 2002, Political Geography and Geographical Policy, Tehran: Smat Publication.

73. Mojtahedzadeh, P., 2012, Geopolitical Philosophy and Function (Concepts and Theories in the Virtual Age), Tehran: Smat Publications.

74. Nowruzi, R., 2011, Latin America, Identity and Civilization (The Latin American Str Position in the International System), Journal of Regional Research, No. 8,  PP. 99-131.

75. Pour Pashang, Z., 2006, Latin America: Its Role and Its Place in the Future of the International System, Publications of the Bureau of State and International Studies, Department of State.

76. Prescott, V., 2012, Regional Economic Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Comparative Case Study, Dissertation, Submitted to Northcentral University Graduate Faculty of the School of Arizona.

77. Rabiei, H., 2009, The Role of Regional Power in Resolving Territorial Conflicts Case Study: Iran in the Persian Gulf in the 1970, Doctoral dissertation on Political Geography, under the guidance of Pirouz Mojtahedzadeh,Tarbiat Modares University.

78. Rasouli Thaniabadi, E., 2014, Analysis of the trend of regionalism in Latin America based on theories of international relations, Quarterly Journal of Strategic Policy Research, Vol. 3, No. 10, PP. 157-184.

79. Rezaei, H., 2011, Latin America; From a Distance, Nearby, Journal of Regional Research, Vol. 3, No. 8, PP. 7-17.

80. Salimi, H.; Dehghani Firouzabadi, S. J. and Pourasmeili, N., 2017, Modeling and Analyzing the Relationship between Regional System and Foreign Policy, International Geopolitical Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 3, PP. 1-24.

81. Sanaei, M. and Ebrahimabadi, Gh., 2013, Emerging Economic Power Organization (BRICS): Objectives, Capabilities and Its Position in the International System, Quarterly Journal of World Political and Social Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1, PP. 1-40.

82. Shah Mohammadi, P., 2010, Latin American Geopolitics and Global Politics, Events and Analysis, No. 253, PP. 27-29.

83. Tafreshi Kuhani, A., 2011, The Geopolitical Importance of Latin America, Regional Research Quarterly, No. 8, PP. 227-254.

84. Tavares, R., 2004, The State of the Art of Regionalism: The Past، Present and Future of a Discipline, Dept, of Peace and Development Research, Gothenburg University Sweden available at: Unpanl. Un. org/ intradoc/ groups/ public/ documents/ Nispacee/ UNPANO 18784.

85. Whepple, L., 2004, South American heartland: Latin American geopolitics and global strategies, Geographical journal, Vol. 170, No. 4, PP. 359-367.

86. Williams, M., 2007, Power in World Politics, Edited by Felix Berenskoetter and by Routledge Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada ,New York Millennium: Journal of International Studies.

87. Yousefi Kopai, Gh. H.; Yazdani, E. and Omidi, A., 2018, Explaining the application of the soft power of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Latin American region; trends and achievements, two quarterly scientific-research quarterly of political science, Vol. 14, No. 28, PP. 168-198.

Volume 52, Issue 2
July 2020
Pages 709-732
  • Receive Date: 03 January 2020
  • Revise Date: 08 June 2020
  • Accept Date: 08 June 2020
  • First Publish Date: 21 June 2020