Explanation of The Islamic Republic of Iran’s Behaviors in the Persian Gulf Region: Conditional-based Foreign Policy versus Positional-based Geopolitics

Document Type : Research Paper




Foreign policy and government performance are influenced by the geopolitical environment and within the framework of a set of spatial and temporal behaviors in the global geopolitical system.. Meanwhile, Iran surrounds the active geopolitical regions and sub-areas surrounded by numerous functions.One of the regions around Iran, which has an irreplaceable location in promoting the geopolitical location of the country, is the Persian Gulf region. The Islamic Republic of Iran, in accordance with the geopolitical requirements, must Model a foreign policy model in the region that is appropriate to its regional role.
this research has been analyzed in a descriptive - analytical method and It has been compiled using written sources including reports, books and articles and internet sites. In this paper, the geographic and political characteristics of the country and the Persian Gulf region are addressed to achieve foreign policy that is in line with the country's geopolitical position in the Gulf region.

Results and discussion
The foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran, despite its high level of idealism in the early days And was repugnant to the countries of the region, but despite their lack of acceptance, they did not want to keep themselves isolated from the security and political issues and the economic times And sought to regain its pivotal role on the basis of the policy of negation of foreign powers, especially the United States, and unity against the arrogance and domination of the region. Hence, he tried to build a new political and security order in the area with the confidence of his neighbors. But the countries of the region, because they had structural weaknesses inside and had a colonial and affiliated nature, interpreted the Islamic Republic's policies in a different way, and contributed to their customization against Iran and its policies in the region. To understand this issue, the calendar of Iran's foreign relations with each of the countries in this region is briefly discussed. Then, by examining the geographical-political characteristics of Iran and the Persian Gulf region, we can gain a general understanding of the geopolitical situation of this region from its internal and external perspective in the surrounding space and the international environment. The Islamic Republic of Iran in its foreign policy in relation to the countries of the Persian Gulf faces geopolitical challenges and opportunities, which in this article is presented for each country according to its geopolitical requirements and conditions. These factors in the situation of Iran's relations with these countries in any period can be decisive in the situation of Iran's relations with these countries in the formation of power relations at any time. These geopolitical position-oriented factors, if taken into account in foreign policy and the current situation-oriented policy, can lead to peace in relations with these countries. elations and the leading geopolitical opportunities and bottlenecks with the Persian Gulf countries, it can be noted that after Resolution 598 and with the effective Hashemi Rafsanjani, the ice of relations melted somewhat during the Khatami era. There will be more openness, culminating in Ahmadinejad, but since the end of his second term due to regional developments such as popular uprisings in North Africa and the Middle East, contraction and political tensions. It took place between the countries on the southern shore of the Persian Gulf and Iran, the shadow of which still lingers in Hassan Rouhani's time. Of course, the trend in relations with Iran is not the same in all southern marginal countries with Iran. Among a number of countries, such as Qatar, Oman and Kuwait, it is less subject to the general rule. Abu Musa has territorial disputes with Iran and in some cases political disputes, but in the economic field of relations between the two countries, he has less recorded these signs. Geopolitical facts require that the countries bordering the Persian Gulf are Iran's inevitable neighbors, which have three important and prominent codes in foreign policy. These three codes, which are Arab identity, Sunni religion, and coordination and political and security affiliation with the United States, have played a very important role in diverging Iran's relations with the Persian Gulf countries, especially the southern region.

The results of the research indicate that the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic in the region includes a range of relations from peaceful coexistence to war that is less dependent on the functional adaptation of geopolitical codes of Iran to regional codes, but rather more dependent on the factors of the state of the political axis of the day to the reality of the situation Geopolitical axis. Of course, this does not mean that the Islamic Republic of Iran was not aware of its geopolitical codes and realities and the units of the region and did not try to converge, but most of these countries were in the region because of Arab nationalism, ideological governments and The West and the United States have not accepted Iran's participation in regional relations and have defined their relations with Iran regardless of geopolitical realities.Thus, achieving a foreign policy based on a geopolitical position that explains the opportunities and bottlenecks of the governments of the region in relation to each other is a long way off. Thus, if the Islamic Republic of Iran wants peace and reconciliation with its southern neighbors and Iraq, it must put a geopolitical approach in relation to each country on its foreign policy agenda. Therefore, it is necessary for Iran to interact with the countries on the southern shores of the Persian Gulf with this approach. In addition, it should consider such a policy in relation to each of the southern marginalized countries according to the specific circumstances of each country and create a role in this regard by using appropriate foreign policy tools and timely action. In this regard, a suitable model for Iran's foreign policy in the south (Persian Gulf) will be the development and expansion of relations within the framework of geopolitical logic.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 09 November 2020
  • Receive Date: 17 July 2020
  • Revise Date: 08 November 2020
  • Accept Date: 09 November 2020