Document Type : Research Paper
Academic Member/ University of Tabriz
Student/ University of Tabriz
Food is one of the essential expressions of any culture and one of the elements of creativity in everyday life that is engaging for many tourists. This provides new opportunities for tourism destinations and at the same time creates new challenges, particularly in the areas of experience development, marketing and branding (OECD, 2012: 9). Customer demand is based on service performance, customer satisfaction, and purchase intention in food tourism. service quality is a kind of global judgement, or attitude that is related to superiority of service. It is also important to reach the customer’s expectation such as how effectively service is delivered according to the customer demand. If the service quality is good then the customer or tourist gets motivation to visit that places again and again. On the other hand poor service quality makes a customer dissatisfied. And then they switch their choices to that place where service quality is good and fast (Senthilnathan & Shreenivasan, 2014: 46). Culture impacts economics effectively such as people get interest to visit the ancient and new culture destinations. So they visit that place and then that place and food sectors such as restaurants, hotels could be able to get economic success (Yeoman, 2011: 33-35). There are some other lacks that affect the growth of the economic sector of food tourism. They are inadequate quality of local food, inconsistent supply of local food, global competition, and lack of availability of market outlets. All of these things are barriers in the economic sector. Inadequate quality of local food causes a disappointment to the customer. So the market should have good quality of product so that it could be able to stand with other competitors (Mwaijande & Francis, 2007: 35). the relationship between food and tourism has until recently been relatively overlooked by academics, policy-makers and communities alike. However, food is now recognized as one of the fastest growing aspects of tourism today (Steinmetz, 2010:72-73). Marketing points to a way to improve food tourism in Tabriz. If the marketing mix (product, price, distribution or Place and promotion) of each product is good and accessible to the customer, the product can meet customer and seller demand. If Tabriz's restaurants and hotels properly apply the marketing mix in their strategies, treat customers with respect and offer them quality food, they can be effective in developing the food tourism sector of the city. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of marketing role on food tourism development in Tabriz city, whether hotel and restaurant managers perform activities in this field and whether they consider tourist satisfaction.In this research, to investigate the role of marketing in food tourism from the viewpoint of restaurant managers, a researcher-made questionnaire with 32 Likert-point scale questionnaires was completed and completed by managers of 20 famous and hospitable restaurants in Tabriz who were selected in a full-scale manner. The reliability and validity of the questionnaires were calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling with Partial Least Squares (PLS-SEM). The variables of the model of surveying the role of marketing from the viewpoints of restaurant managers were extracted from the conclusions of previous studies.
Discussion and Results
Rejecting the Positive and Significant Impact of Distribution Marketing Mix on Food Tourism Development Factors: Considering the Confidence Gain from Model Evaluation Results, the role of restaurant managers in evaluating food tourism is 0/913. There was no significant relationship between the mix of distribution marketing and food tourism development factors.
Rejecting the Positive and Significant Effect of Price Marketing Mix on Food Tourism Development Factors: Considering the Confidence from the Evaluation Results of the Model Evaluating the Role of Marketing in Food Tourism from Restaurant Managers' Viewpoint is 0/300. There is no significant relationship between the mix of price marketing and food tourism development factors.
Rejecting the Positive and Significant Effect of Product Marketing Mix on Food Tourism Development Factors: Considering the Confidence from the Results of Model Evaluation, Investigation of the Role of Marketing in Food Tourism by Restaurant Managers is 0/207. There is no significant relationship between product marketing mix variables and food tourism development factors.
Failure to rule out the positive and significant effect of promotion marketing mix on food tourism development factors: Considering the confidence interval obtained from the results of model evaluation, the role of marketing managers in food tourism is 0/008. There is a significant relationship between the marketing mix of promotion marketing and food tourism development factors. Also, due to the positive coefficient of the variable obtained, the effect of the promotional marketing mix variable on the factors of food tourism development is positive. The path coefficient value is 0/534 indicating that by increasing one unit of promotion marketing mix, food tourism development factors will increase by 0/55 unit.
So that, the results of the model investigation of the role of marketing in food tourism from the viewpoint of restaurant managers showed that in this model of marketing promotion mix with path coefficients of 0/534 had the most impact on food tourism development factors, respectively.
In this model, promotion marketing mix has the most impact on the factors of food tourism development. Therefore, it can be concluded that the results of this study are to some extent consistent with the results of the external research of Khanam et al., Food tourism marketing in Finland, and that the marketing of food tourism in the study area makes tourists aware of local cuisine. And it attracts more tourists and marketing is important in the development of food tourism. And according to internal research done by Liyaqati et al in an article entitled The Role and Influence of Marketing Mix Elements on Iranian Pomegranate Exports, Price Marketing Mix had the Most Impact on Save Pomegranate Exports, but in the present study the promotion marketing mix had the most impact on the development of food tourism.