Analysis of social reasons for the destruction of rural water resources (Case study: rural areas of Mazandaran)

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, IRAN

Abstract

Extended Abstract
Economic activities in Mazandaran province have included traditional methods of agricultural production and exploitation of water resources for these activities but a new kind of production has been formed that is based on production to make a profit. The aim of this study is to use the production treadmill theory to examine the following questions: 1- What effect has the growth of agricultural production had on water resources? 2. What effect have workers had on water resources? 3. How have government agencies affected water resources? In this research, the documentary method has been used. The findings show that in this new type of operation, water resources are destroyed by newer technologies with greater depth, intensity and scope. The research results showed that the theory provides a good sociological explanation for the factors that destroy water resources.




Introduction
In Mazandaran province, agricultural and livestock production has existed since ancient times and these activities play an important role in its economy. So that from the total area of Mazandaran province, 470 thousand hectares are agricultural lands (370 thousand hectares of irrigated and 170 thousand hectares of rainfed, which in addition to the second irrigated and rainfed cultivation is 650 thousand hectares). In this province, 400 km of modern irrigation network with a cultivated area of 80,000 hectares, 763 dams with an area of 17,000 hectares and a reserve volume of 379 million cubic meters, as well as 7,000 km of rivers flowing in Mazandaran province, water is required. Provide agricultural activities.
It is obvious that water plays an essential role in all agricultural, horticultural and animal husbandry activities, and any water problems will have important consequences at the regional and national levels. Although now 70 types of agricultural products and 22 products with the first rank of production in the country, are cultivated in the province and this is one of the reasons why Mazandaran is generally considered as an area without water problems, but the problems and challenges Diversity is related to the water situation in Mazandaran province. Among them: 1- During the last ten years, the potential of surface water resources in the province has decreased from 4.5 billion cubic meters to 3.8 billion cubic meters. 2- In Mazandaran province, more than 90% of the water that is controlled annually is used in the agricultural sector, which, considering that Mazandaran is the agricultural hub of Iran, accounts for a large part of the waste. 3- Mazandaran is one of the provinces with high consumption of chemical fertilizers, especially phosphate, which in addition to soil pollution, leads to the entry of chemical pollutants into water resources.
In Mazandaran province, the destruction of water resources includes two types: 1- Water pollution caused by the discharge of industrial, agricultural and domestic wastewater into water resources 2- Irregular withdrawal and out of capacity of water resources. The present article examines the following questions using Schneiberg's treadmill theory:
1- What effect does the growth of production and agriculture have on the water resources of Mazandaran?
2- What effect do workers and residents of Mazandaran province have on Mazandaran's water resources?
3- What is the effect of the government and government institutions on the water resources of Mazandaran?
Methodology
In this research, documentary method has been used to investigate the role of each factor of production in the destruction of water resources.
Results and discussion
The production of the treadmill theory places the primary responsibility for environmental degradation on the competitive nature of capitalism and the role of government in facilitating industrial growth. This view, put forward by Schnaiberg, attributes economic growth to environmental pollution. The main claim of this approach is that the growing level of investment and accumulation in modern capitalist economies is one of the main drivers of environmental disorders.
According to Schnaiberg's theory, the three main axes of destruction of water resources in Mazandaran province include the following axes:
1-Manufacturing companies, agro-industries, livestock and poultry feed production and sales factories, etc., with the aim of increasing profits, to increase economic growth and increase agricultural production by increasing investment and the use of new agricultural technologies and thus increasing the speed and intensity of exploitation of water resources, also use a variety of fertilizers and pesticides on the other hand, these productive capitalists are supported by the government and workers because of job creation opportunities for workers, as well as due to the payment of taxes and the provision of government funding, and the destruction they cause in water resources is ignored by the other two axes.
2-The second axis is the group of workers, the local community and farmers, who on the other hand are affected by the bad conditions of water resources resulting from capitalist productive activities and on the other hand, they are affected by the bad economic conditions that affect the environmental demands and tendencies or their economic demands. This group sees the boom and increase in production as more job opportunities, and at the same time, they accept the greatest impact from the destruction of the province's water resources.
3. The third axis is the government, which on the one hand is the intermediary between the two previous groups and must provide the economic conditions and grounds for job creation, and on the other hand is committed to protecting the environment and creating sustainable development. Which government fulfills its obligations depends on the economic, social and environmental conditions, and the economic and environmental pressures and demands of the other two groups will affect the government's actions and policies on water resources.
Conclusion
The three main axes of water resources destruction in Mazandaran province, including:
1- Manufacturing companies, agro-industries, factories producing and selling livestock and poultry feed that use water resources inappropriately in order to increase profits.
2- Workers and the local community, where increased production sees more job opportunities.
3- The government that is affected by economic and environmental pressures and demands.

Keywords: Rural Areas, Production Treadmill Theory, Water Resources, Agricultural Activities, Industrial Production.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. آمارنامة کشاورزی 1389، 1390، وزارت جهاد کشاورزی، معاونت برنامه‏ریزی و اقتصادی، مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، تهران.
  2. آمارنامة کشاورزی 1397، 1398، وزارت جهاد کشاورزی، معاونت برنامه‏ریزی و اقتصادی، مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، تهران.
  3. آمارنامة محصولات زراعی سال زراعی 1388-1389، 1393، وزارت جهاد کشاورزی، معاونت برنامه‏ریزی و اقتصادی، مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، تهران.
  4. آمارنامة محصولات زراعی سال زراعی 1396-1397، 1398، وزارت جهاد کشاورزی، معاونت برنامه‏ریزی و اقتصادی، مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، تهران.
  5. بیکر، ترز ال،1386، روش تحقیق نظری در علوم اجتماعی، ترجمه ی هوشنگ نایبی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران.
  6. توکلی، محمد­تقی و همکاران، 1390، جلوگیری از آلودگی منابع آب مدیریت صحیح فعالیت­های کشاورزی و دامی، شرکت مدیریت منابع آب ایران.
  7. جلایی پور، حمیدرضا، مجمدی، جمال،1392، نظریه های متاخر جامعه شناسی، نشر نی، تهران.
  8. جهانی بهنمیری، اصغر و حسن‏نژاد، جواد، 1390، جلوگیری از آلودگی منابع آب با کنترل و تصفیة فاضلابهای صنعتی، شرکت مدیریت منابع آب ایران.
  9. جهانی بهنمیری، اصغر؛ حسن‏نژاد، جواد و محمودی، شاهرخ، 1390، جلوگیری از آلودگی منابع آب با دفع صحیح زبالههای شهری و روستایی، شرکت مدیریت منابع آب ایران.
  10. حاتمی، عباس و نوربخش، سوسن، 1397، بازسازی معنایی بحران آب در شرق اصفهان براساس نظریۀ زمینه‌ای، جامعه شناسی کاربردی، دوره 30، شماره 1 - شماره پیاپی 73، ص 123- 146.
  11. حسنی، امیرحسام؛ صیادی، مجتبی و جعفری، ساناز، 1390، بررسی تأثیر سموم دفع آفات کشاورزی بر کیفیت آب شرب چاه‏های محفورة روستاهای شمیرانات، آب و فاضلاب، شمارة 1، صص 119-130.
  12. حسنی، امیرحسام؛ اسکندری، مهفام و صیادی، مجتبی، 1394، بررسی اثرات کودهای شیمیایی بر منابع آب زیرزمینی روستاهای شهرستان شمیرانات، پایداری، توسعه و محیط زیست، دورة دوم، شمارة 4، ص 1-15.
  13. حقیقت، رضا و محمدی، یوسف، 1384، چگونگی وضعیت آلودگی منابع آب در منطقة رامسر، پژوهش در پزشکی، دورة ٢٩، شمارة ٤، ص
  14. حیدری، نادر، 1397، مسائل و راهکارهای تسکین تغییر اقلیم از جنبه‏های مدیریت تولید در کشاورزی، نشریة آب و توسعه پایدار، سال پنجم، شمارة 1، صص 45-54.
  15. ریتزر، جورج، 1389، مبانی نظریه ی جامعه شناسی معاصر و ریشه های کلاسیک آن، شهناز مسمی پرست، ثالث، تهران.
  16. ریتزر، جورج، 1393، نظریه ی جامعه شناسی، هوشنگ نایبی، نشر نی، تهران.
  17. ساروخانی، باقر، 1389، روش های تحقیق در علوم اجتماعی، بینش ها و فنون، پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی، جلد دوم تهران.
  18. سال‏نامة آماری آب کشور 1388-1389، 1393، وزارت نیرو، دفتر برنامه‏ریزی کلان آب و آبفا، تهران.
  19. سال‏نامة آماری آب کشور 1389-1390، 1393، وزارت نیرو، دفتر برنامه‏ریزی کلان آب و آبفا، تهران.
  20. سال‏نامة آماری آب کشور 1390-1391، 1394، وزارت نیرو، دفتر برنامه‏ریزی کلان آب و آبفا، تهران.
  21. سال‏نامة آماری آب کشور 1391-1392، 1394، وزارت نیرو، دفتر برنامه‏ریزی کلان آب و آبفا، تهران.
  22. سال‏نامة آماری آب کشور 1392-1393، 1395، وزارت نیرو، دفتر برنامه‏ریزی کلان آب و آبفا، تهران.
  23. شرکت آب منطقه‏ای مازندران- الف، 1397، روشهای نوین صیانت از رودخانهها در مازندران، وزارت نیرو، شرکت مدیریت منابع آب ایران.
  24. شرکت آب منطقه‏ای مازندران- ب، 1397، آب زیرزمینی سرمایة پنهان، وزارت نیرو، شرکت مدیریت منابع آب ایران.
  25. شرکت آب منطقه‏ای مازندران- ج،1397، کلیات، وزارت نیرو، شرکت مدیریت منابع آب ایران.
  26. عرب، محمد؛ فتاحی اردکانی؛ احمد و فهرستی ثانی، مسعود،1397، ارزیابی تأثیر احداث سدها بر جامعه محلی و محیط پیرامون در ایران: مرور نظام مند، نشریه آب و توسعه پایدار، سال پنجم، شماره 2، صص 141-152.
  27. عطارزاده، فاطمه و پردل نوقابی، رسول، 1397،کشاورزی و آبیاری دقیق، نشریة آب و توسعة پایدار، سال پنجم، شمارة 2، صص 61-70.
  28. عنبری، موسی، 1395، جامعه شناسی توسعه از اقتصاد تا فرهنگ، سمت، تهران.
  29. فلاح، مریم و فاخران، سیما، 1395، ارزیابی کیفیت آب تالاب بین‏المللی انزلی با استفاده از شاخص‏های کیفی، نشریة آب و توسعه پایدار، سال چهارم، شمارة 2، صص 23-30.
  30. قدوسی، حامد و داوری، حامد، 1395، تحلیل انتقادی آب مجازی از منظر سیاست‏گذاری، نشریة آب و توسعة پایدار، سال سوم، شمارة 1، صص 47-58.
  31. کشاورز، عباس و همکاران، 1395، برآورد ارزش اقتصادی آب ازدست‏رفتة ناشی از ضایعات محصولات کشاورزی (زراعی و باغی آبی، از مرحلة برداشت تا قبل از مصرف)، نشریة آب و توسعه پایدار، سال سوم، شمارة 1، صص 73-81.
  32. همتیان، فریبا؛ معلمی، بهرام و امانی طهرانی، محمود، 1394، نجات آب، چاپ هادی، وزارت نیرو، شرکت مدیریت منابع آب ایران.
  33. Agricultural 2010, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, Deputy of Planning and Economy, Information and Communication Technology Center, Tehran.
  34. Agricultural Statistics 2017, 2018, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, Deputy of Planning and Economy, Information and Communication Technology Center, Tehran.
  35. Crop Product Statistics Crop Year 2009-2010, 2013, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, Deputy of Planning and Economy, Information and Communication Technology Center, Tehran.
  36. Crop Product Statistics Crop Year 2016-2017, 2018, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, Deputy of Planning and Economy, Information and Communication Technology Center, Tehran.
  37. Baker, Therese L., 2007, Theoretical Research Method in Social Sciences, translated by Houshang Naebi, Payame Noor University, Tehran.
  38. Tavakoli, Mohammad Taghi et al., 2011, Prevention of water resources pollution Proper management of agricultural and livestock activities, Iran Water Resources Management Company.
  39. Jalaeipour, Hamidreza, Majmadi, Jamal, 2013, Recent Sociological Theories, Ney Publishing, Tehran.
  40. Jahani Bahnemiri, Asghar and Hassannejad, Javad,2010, Prevention of pollution of water resources by controlling and purifying industrial wastewater, Iran Water Resources Management Company.
  41. Jahani Bahnemiri, Asghar; Hassan Nejad, Javad and Mahmoudi, Shahrokh,2010, Prevention of water resources pollution by proper disposal of urban and rural waste, Iran Water Resources Management Company.
  42. Hatami, Abbas and Nourbakhsh, Susan, 2018, Semantic Reconstruction of Water Crisis in East Isfahan Based on Background Theory, Applied Sociology, Volume 30, Number 1 - Serial Number 73, pp. 123-
  43. Hassani, Amir Hossam; Sayadi, Mojtaba and Jafari, Sanaz, 2011, The effect of pesticides on agricultural water quality of drinking water in wells in Shemiranat villages, Water and sewage, No. 1, pp. 119-130.
  44. Hassani, Amir Hesam; Eskandari, Mahfam and Sayadi, Mojtaba, 2014, Investigation of the effects of chemical fertilizers on groundwater resources in the villages of Shemiranat, Sustainability, Development and Environment, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 1-15.
  45. Haghighat, Reza and Mohammadi, Yousef. How to pollute water resources in Ramsar region, Research in Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 1-5.
  46. Heydari, Nader, 2018, Issues and Strategies for Relieving Climate Change from the Aspects of Production Management in Agriculture, Journal of Water and Sustainable Development, Fifth Year, No. 1, pp. 45-54.
  47. Ritzer, George, 2010, Fundamentals of Contemporary Sociological Theory and Its Classical Roots, Shahnaz Mesmiparast, Third, Tehran.
  48. Ritzer, George, 2014, Sociological Theory, Houshang Naebi, Ney Publishing, Tehran.
  49. Sarukhani, Baqer, 2010, Research Methods in Social Sciences, Insights and Techniques, Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies, Volume 2, Tehran.
  50. Statistical yearbook of water of the country 2008-2009, 2013, Ministry of Energy, Water and Wastewater Macro Planning Office, Tehran.
  51. Statistical yearbook of water of the country 2009-2010, 2013, Ministry of Energy, Water and Wastewater Macro Planning Office, Tehran.
  52. Statistical yearbook of water of the country 2010-2011, 2014, Ministry of Energy, Water and Wastewater Macro Planning Office, Tehran.
  53. Statistical yearbook of water of the country 2011-2012, 2014, Ministry of Energy, Water and Wastewater Macro Planning Office, Tehran.
  54. Statistical yearbook of water of the country 2012-2013, 2015, Ministry of Energy, Water and Wastewater Macro Planning Office, Tehran.
  55. Mazandaran Regional Water Company-A, 2017, New methods of river protection in Mazandaran, Ministry of Energy, Iran Water Resources Management Company.
  56. Mazandaran Regional Water Company-B, 2017, Hidden Capital Groundwater, Ministry of Energy, Iran Water Resources Management Company.
  57. Mazandaran Regional Water Company-C, 2018, generality, Ministry of Energy, Iran Water Resources Management Company.
  58. Arab, Mohammad; Fattahi Ardakani; Ahmad and the second list, Massoud, 2018, Assessing the impact of dam construction on the local community and the surrounding environment in Iran: A systematic review, Journal of Water and Sustainable Development, Fifth Year, No. 2, pp. 141-152.
  59. Attarzadeh, Fatemeh and Pardel Noghabi, Rasoul, 2018, Agriculture and precision irrigation, Journal of Water and Sustainable Development, Fifth Year, No. 2, pp. 61-70.
  60. Anbari, Musa, 2016, Sociology of Development from Economy to Culture, Samat, Tehran.
  61. Fallah, Maryam and Fakhran, Sima, 2016, Assessing the water quality of Anzali International Wetland using quality indicators, Journal of Water and Sustainable Development, Fourth Year, No. 2, pp. 23-30.
  62. Qudusi, Hamed and Davari, Hamed, 2016, Critical analysis of virtual water from a policy perspective, Journal of Water and Sustainable Development, Third Year, No. 1, pp. 47-58.
  63. Keshavarz, Abbas et al., 2016, Estimation of economic value of water lost due to agricultural waste (agricultural and horticultural, from harvest to consumption), Journal of Water and Sustainable Development, Third Year, No. 1, pp. 73-81.
  64. Hemmatian, Fariba; Moalemi, Bahram and Amani Tehrani, Mahmoud, Water rescue, Hadi printing, Ministry of Energy, Iran Water Resources Management Company.
  65. Brisman, Avi, 2014, Of Theory and Meaning in Green Criminology, Online version via, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 21‐34.
  66. Spaargaren,Gert, 2003, Sustainable Consumption: ATheoretical and Environmental Policy Perspective, Society and Natural Resources, No. 16, pp. 687–701.
  67. Cohen, M. J., and J. Murphy, eds., 2001, Exploring sustainable consumption: Environmental policy and the social sciences, Amsterdam: Pergamon.
  68. Curran, Dean, 2017, The Positional Economy of Consumption, Online publication, pp. 28-48.
  • , 2003, Water pollution and habitat degradation in the Gulf of Thailand, Marine Pollution Bulletin, No. 47, pp. 43-51.
  1. Gould, Kenneth A.; Pellow, David N. and Schnaiberg, Allan, 2004, Interrogating the Treadmill Of Production, Everything You Wanted to Know About the Treadmill but Were Afraid to Ask, Organization & Environment, 17, No. 3, pp. 296-316.
  2. Gould, Kenneth A.; Pellow, David N. and Schnaiberg, Allan, 2016, The Treadmil of Production, Injustice and Unsustalnability in the Global Economy, Routledge.
  3. Griffina, Lauren N.; Pavelab, Gregory and Arroyoa, Julia, 2015, Tourism and the treadmill of production: a cross-national analysis, Environmental Sociology, 1, No. 2, pp. 127-138.
  4. Jason Sean, Allen, 2016, The Treadmill of Production and Coastal Environmental Concerns: Structural Selectivity and North Carolina’s Coastal Resource Commission, Under the direction of Dr. Stefano Longo.
  5. Jorgenson, Andrew K. and Clark, Brett, 2012, Are the Economy and the Environment Decoupling? A Comparative International Study, 1960–2005, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 118, No. 1, pp. 1-44.
  6. Lengefeld, Michael R. and Smith, Chad L., 2013, Nuclear shadows: Weighing the environmental effects of militarism, capitalism, and modernization in a global context, 2001-2007, Research in Human Ecology, Vol. 20, No. 1.
  7. Longo, Stefano B. and Baker, Joseph O., 2014, Economy versus Environment:: The Influence of Economic Ideology and Political Identity on Perceived Threat of Eco-Catastrophe, Economic Ideology and Eco-Catastrophe, pp. 1-26.
  8. Longo, Stefano B. and York, Richard, 2009, Structural Influences on Water Withdrawals: An Exploratory Macro-Comparative Analysis, Human Ecology Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 75-84.
  9. Mckinney, Laura , 2012, Entropic disorder: new frontiers in Environmental sociology, Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 55, Issue 2, pp. 295-317.
  • 2009, Investigating the Correlates of Biodiversity Loss: A Cross-National Quantitative Analysis of Threatened Bird Species, Human Ecology Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 103-113.
  • 2018, Agricultural technologies and carbon emissions: evidence from Jordanian economy, Environmental Science and Pollution Research.
  1. Salimi Kouchi, Jamileh et al., 2018, Recognition of social powers and its relationship with the formation of cooperative behavior in conflict management of water resources in Doroudzan dam watershed, Fars province, Journal of Rural Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 446- 462.
  2. Vryzas, Zisis, 2018, Pesticide fate in soil-sediment-water environment in relation to contamination preventing actions, Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, Vol. 4, pp. 5-9.
  • , 2003, Footprints on the Earth: the Environmental Consequences of Modernity, American Sociological review, 68, pp. 279-300.
  1. Zhao, Y.Y. and Pei, Y. S., 2012, Risk evaluation of groundwater pollution by pesticides in China: a short review, Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol. 13, pp. 1739-1747.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Volume 54, Issue 1
January 2022
Pages 219-234
  • Receive Date: 13 July 2020
  • Revise Date: 30 December 2020
  • Accept Date: 31 December 2020
  • First Publish Date: 31 December 2020