Document Type : Research Paper
PHD student. Geography &amp; Urban Planning / Faculty of Planning &amp; Environmental Sciences / Tabriz University / Iran
Professor Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tabriz
Associate Professor Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tabriz
Member of Faculty in University of Tabriz
Evaluation of Creative City Indicators in Creating a Creative Tourism City (Case Study: Khoy)
Tourists are looking for new destinations with different targets for leisure time. Creative outlet seeks to Highlighting subcultures in the local community and revitalizing tangible and intangible heritage and educational, emotional, social interaction of tourist as well as his involvement with the place and culture of destination people. In the era of creative tourism, tourists are not only looking for natural and historical artifacts but also for a deeper understanding of destination community. According to genre of life, cultural diversity and historical monuments and artistic works in khoy are increasingly felt in attention of creative tourism in this city. Due to the importance of the issue of creative tourism and the appropriate geographical location of Khoy in relation to the Turkish border and the existence of tourist attractions, Research has been done to achieve this. Creating a creative tourism location requires application of important creative city indicators, such as participation, urban diversity, vitality of urban spaces, efficiency and communication technology. The statistical population of this study includes citizens of dual regions of Khoy and the required sample size of 383 people was determined. . The purpose of this paper is to evaluate indicators of creative city in creating creative urban tourism in Khoy. In this regard, The research method is descriptive-analytical and applied in terms of purpose and Obtaining data and information was in the form of documents and field (citizen questionnaire). The results of multivariate research show that there is a significant relationship between creative city indicators and the rate of realization of creative urban tourism But Khoy city does not have necessary indicators to create creative tourism and there are fundamental weaknesses in the various components of the creative city.
The creative tourism has spread over the years to many countries, including New Zealand, Austria, Spain, Canada, the United States and Taiwan.This is how UNESCO's Network of Creative Cities describes creative tourism in 2006. Creative tourism is a journey guided to selected and authentic experiences with collaborative learning in the art, cultural heritage or special features of a place and it connects with those who live in these places and build this living culture(Tan & et al, 2013).
Creative tourism experiences lead to the development of economic, the social and cultural conditions in the destination that is presented. Creativity allows the tourist destination city to develop innovative products relatively quickly and gives it a competitive advantage over other destinations. Creative products attract entrepreneurs and people from the cultural sector(Robati Anaraki, 2016: 3).
Creative cities are able to provide new solutions to their everyday problems. Another concept of creative city focuses on cultural products, That is, the production of cultural goods and services are associated with activities that constitute center of creativity (Rabbani khorasgani, 2011: 161).
The term creative tourism was coined by Richards and Raymond, The idea for a variety of creative forms of tourism originated in a European project called Eurotex. Idea of creative tourism came not only to meet all needs and wants of the tourist, but also to form a wide range of contemporary policy making. Creative tourism is recognized as one of the key development options for a variety of reasons and can serve specific purposes( Babaei hemmati & mousavi, 2014).
Pappalepore and et al( 2014), In a study concluded that the important role of creative clusters in development of creative tourism is that the focus of creative industries provides opportunities for consumption and accumulation of cultural capital and factors such as morphology, day-to-day activities, the authenticity of area, unusual atmosphere, and keen mental image support creative tourism.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate indicators of creative city in creating creative urban tourism in Khoy. The method is descriptive analytical and the statistical tests of single - sample t test, variance and multivariate regression analysis were used. Due to the nature of subject and indices studied, documentary research and field studies (questionnaire) were used for data collection. Questions were adjusted based on the 5-item components and the Likert spectrum and the sample size was 383 questionnaires
Results and discussion
According to the responses of the participants in the research, the participation index with According to the answers of the participants in the research, The participation index with average (1.78), urban diversity index with average (2.23), The vitality index of urban spaces with (2.29), The efficiency and effectiveness index with (2.12) And the the communication technology index is with the average (2.55).
From the citizens' point of view, the worst situation was the participation index and the efficiency and effectiveness index of urban spaces. Regarding the participation index, the most criticized was the lack of necessary bedrock for participation (psychological security) and the lack of suggestions and opinions of people and tourists in tourism affairs and the most critical of the efficiency and effectiveness index; There has been a lack of adequate planning by city officials to prevent corruption and crime, lack of green space expansion, and lack of the creativity in creating urban green spaces.
The results of multivariate regression analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between creative city indices and the degree of realizability of urban creative tourism . Among the studied indicators, the worst situation was the participation index and the efficiency and effectiveness index and the communication technology and vitality index of urban spaces has the highest score among the indicators. . Overall, the average of the creative city of Khoy is lower than average and is in poor condition.
Creative City; Urban Tourism; Creative Tourism; Evaluation Indicators; Khoy city.