Assessing entrepreneurial opportunities in rural areas and the role of government in promoting it Case study of Behbahan villages

Document Type : Research Paper



Extended Abstract
Behbahan County is located in the southeast of Khuzestan province and due to suitable climatic conditions and the existence of permanent rivers such as Maroon and Khairabad, Zohreh, as well as having arable and fertile soil, has provided favorable facilities for agricultural development (Statistics Center of Iran, 1397: 42). However, the entrepreneurial situation in the villages of the region is weak. Meanwhile, in the villages of Behbahan County, the number of unemployed people with higher education is very high and about 6370 people (Statistics Center of Iran, 1397: 42). As a result, the opportunities presented in this study in achieving sustainable entrepreneurship in order to create employment and sustainable income for residents and maintain the environment that is endangered due to the extraction of oil and gas products, can provide useful insights in the field.
- Methodology
The sample size was selected through Cochran's formula, 387 people and was identified using the classification sampling method with the assignment of the optimal share of each village and the people in each village were randomly selected. The dependent variable is the promotion of entrepreneurial opportunities in the region and the independent variable is the role of government in entrepreneurship development, which is measured by 10 items. Convergent validity of the latent variable of the study was also obtained through the mean of extraction variance (0.87) which showed internal consistency and appropriate convergent validity. In order to evaluate the validity of the items, first the variables were identified based on the background and in the next step, the items were adjusted according to the characteristics of the region, and finally the items were modified and finalized based on the opinions of experts and professors. Cronbach's alpha test was also used to evaluate the reliability of the research scales. The results showed that the calculated alpha value for 10 items of government role is 0.73, which is statistically acceptable. Also, in order to analyze the data, one-sample Chi-square tests were used to evaluate items, one-sample t-test was used to evaluate independent and dependent variables, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the average entrepreneurial opportunities. To understand and analyze the results of the questionnaire, the transcendental and translog production function, which is used for polynomial equations whose coefficients are also polynomial, has been used. Finally, through path analysis, which is a kind of statistical analysis of multiple regressions, and by examining the relationships between dependent variables and two or more independent variables, used to evaluate causal models, the extent and importance of causal relationships between variables is estimated.
-Results and discussion
Using the analysis of the questionnaires completed by the villagers of Behbahan County, the result of evaluating the amount of entrepreneurial opportunities in the region is examined according to the role of the government. The results of one-sample t-test are significant for all studied indicators at a level of confidence above 95% and considering that the observed mean difference is assumed to be positive (3.1), so statistically it can be said that the studied villagers are effective. These indicators have a positive opinion. Also, the level of significance and the distance from line one to one of the t-test statistic close to 2 of all indicators are statistically acceptable. Comparison of evaluation statistics shows the production functions of translog and transcendental. Also, according to the evaluation statistics of multiple determination coefficient and adjusted coefficient of determination, the transcendental model has a better evaluation than explaining the role of government in promoting entrepreneurial opportunities. The residual standard error, which is also one of the important statistics in evaluating production functions, is less in the transcendental model. Therefore, considering the adjusted coefficient of determination of the transcendental model, it can be said that the independent variables of the model are 91% effective in explaining entrepreneurial opportunities. The results of this path analysis approach show that among the items explaining the role of government in promoting entrepreneurship; Indigenous culture and education (68% of the total impact) has a much higher indirect share compared to other items. The new rural management, with a total impact of 67%, also has the largest number of exogenous routes and acts as an important station. This variable indirectly affects the various variables of necessary facilities with sufficient interest, government subsidies and product insurance with significant correlation coefficients. It is necessary to state that in general, culture and education of indigenous peoples, establishment of inputs and support networks, new rural management, necessary facilities with sufficient interest and government subsidies at the rate of effects of 68, 57, 67, 60 and 63, respectively. Percentages had the highest total effect. This means that the government can play its role in promoting entrepreneurial opportunities by playing its role through the mentioned items.
This study shows well the interactions of effective variables in entrepreneurship and the role of government in rural development. At present, the amount of government investment in entrepreneurship, government support measures for entrepreneurs, and the amount of government funding for entrepreneurship opportunities, as well as institutions providing funding from the government, are able to finance the acquisition of entrepreneurial businesses. are not. Therefore, the growth of entrepreneurial activities in rural areas depends on the design and application of new financing management methods such as government support measures for rural entrepreneurship. However, unfortunately, the role of the government in creating jobs and entrepreneurship in the villages of Behbahan is very small. Considering the potential opportunities of Behbahan villages in realizing sustainable entrepreneurship and in order to create employment and income for rural residents, using these opportunities and government support can have a beneficial impact on business creation. And have rural entrepreneurship for the sustainable development of rural areas. Unemployment is one of the main challenges in this region, while these villages have a lot of talent to earn money and create jobs.
Keywords: Villages of Behbahan County, promoting entrepreneurship, the role of government


Main Subjects

  1. اکبری، مرتضی؛ شکیبا، حجت و زهتابی، منا، 1391، رابطة باورهای مذهبی و تمایل به کارآفرینی (مطالعة موردی: دانشجویان دانشکده‏های کارآفرینی و کشاورزی)، فصلنامة علمی- پژوهشی توسعة کارآفرینی، دورة 5، ش 4، صص 87-105.
  2. اوتادی، محمد و صفری، سعید، 1398، بررسی تأثیر ویژگیهای شخصیتی و رفتاری در تبیین قصد کارآفرینانة دانشجویان (مطالعة موردی: دانشگاه شاهد)، توسعة کارآفرینی، دورة 12، ش 4، صص 500-520.
  3. حسینی، سید مرتضی؛ منشیزاده، رحمتالله؛ رضویان، محمدتقی و مرید سادات، پگاه، 1398، بررسی موانع توسعة پایدار اقتصادی سکونتگاههای روستایی با رویکرد کارآفرینی (مطالعة موردی: شهرستان کیار- استان چهارمحال و بختیاری)، فصلنامة علمی- پژوهشی نگرشهای نو در جغرافیای انسانی، دورة 12، ش 1.
  4. خیاره، محسن و عرفاننیا، امین، 1398، شناسایی و اولویتبندی چالشها و فرصتهای کارآفرینی روستایی: مطالعة موردی دهستان باقران، القورات و شاخن شهرستان بیرجند، روستا و توسعه، دورة 22، ش 88، صص122- 92.
  5. دربان آستانه، علیرضا؛ قدیری معصوم، مجتبی و فیروزی، محمدعلی، 1391، بررسی ارتباط بین عملکرد سازمانی و مهارتهای کارآفرینی مدیران محلی روستایی، مطالعة موردی: دهیاران استان قزوین، پژوهشهای روستایی، دورة 3، ش 1، صص 27-59.
  6. دهقانی، امین و جمینی، داوود، 1396، سنجش وضعیت شاخص‏های کارآفرینی، تعیینکننده‏ها، و راهکارهای توسعة آن در سکونتگا‏ه‏های روستایی مطالعة موردی: شهرستان جوانرود، فصلنامة فضای جغرافیایی، دورة 17، ش ۶۰، صص ۲۴۷-۲۶۵.
  7. ذبیحی، محمدرضا و مقدسی، علیرضا، 1385، کارآفرینی از تئوری تا عمل، انتشارات جهان فردا.
  8. رضوانی، محمدرضا و نجازاده، محمد، 1387، بررسی و تحلیل زمینه‏های کارآفرینی روستاییان در فرایند توسعة نواحی روستایی مطالعة موردی: دهستان براآن جنوبی شهرستان اصفهان، توسعة کارآفرینی، دورة اول، ش دوم، صص182- 161.
  9. رضوانی، محمدرضا؛ باغیانی، حمیدرضا و جعفری، سارا، 1393، پارادایمهای نوین توسعة روستایی؛ سیاستها و حکمروایی، انتشارات دراخوین.
  10. رکن‌الدین افتخاری، عبدالرضا؛ سجاسی قیداری، حمداله (1389). توسعه روستایی با تأکید بر کارآفرینی (تعاریف، دیدگاه‌ها و تجربیات)، سازمان مطالعه و تدوین کتب علوم انسانی دانشگاه (سمت)، چاپ سوم، تهران.
  11. سخته، شقایق و کریمی، آصف، 1398، عوامل مؤثر بر نوآوریِ باز در کارآفرینی دیجیتال، توسعة کارآفرینی، دورة 11، ش 4، صص 719-737.
  12. شاهآبادی، ابوالفضل و چایانی، طیبه، 1398، تأثیر جذب سریز فناوری و کارآفرینی بر پیچیدگی اقتصادی، تحقیقات اقتصادی، دورة 54، ش 4، صص 891-916.
  13. شریفی، لیلا؛ بازگیر، سعید؛  محمدی، حسین؛ دربان آستانه، علیرضا و کریمی احمدآباد، مصطفی، 1399، بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر تغییرات تولید گندم در اقلیم‏های مختلف استان فارس، تحقیقات کاربردی علوم جغرافیایی، دورة 20، ش 57، صص 282-300.
  14. قادرمرزی، حامد؛ جمشیدی، علیرضا؛ جمینی، داود و نظری‏سرمازه، حمید، ۱۳۹۴، شناسایی موانع توسعة کارآفرینیِ زنان روستایی (مطالعة موردی: دهستان شلیل شهرستان اردل)، برنامه‏ریزی منطقه‏ای، دورة ۵، ش ۱۷، صص ۱۰۳-۱۱۸.
  15. قنبری، سیروس و دهقان، محمدحسین و میرکی اناری، حسین، 1396، اولویتبندی مکانی توسعۀ کارآفرینی با تأکید بر صنایع تبدیلی کشاورزی در مناطق روستایی با بهرهگیری از مدل ویکور، مطالعة موردی: دهستان حسینآباد شهرستان انار، مجلة آمایش جغرافیایی فضا، فصلنامة علمی- پژوهشی دانشگاه گلستان، دورة 7، ش 26.
  16. قیداری سجاسی، حمدالله؛ شایان، حمید و طبسی، علی، 1398، سنجش مسئولیتپذیری اجتماعی شرکتهای کارآفرینی کشاورزی در مناطق روستایی موردمطالعه (دهستان‏های شهرستان‏های کاشمر و بردسکن و خلیلآباد)، دورة 10، ش 2.
  17. مرکز آمار ، 1397، ص 42.
  18. یاری، احمد؛ غفوریان، فاطمه؛ ورمزیار، بنتالهدی و میراسکندری، سیدمحمدرضا، 1392، شناسایی فرصتهای کارآفرینی در صنایع نفت و گاز، همایش ملی دانشگاه کارآفرین، صنعت دانش‏‏محور دانشگاه مازندران.
  19. Aces, Z. J.; Serb L. and Audio, E., 2016, Enhancing Entrepreneurship Ecosystems. A “Systems of Entrepreneurship” Approach to Entrepreneurship Policy. In: Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index 2015”. Springer Briefs in Economics. Cham, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 65-76.
  20. Bosman, N. and Schutjens, V., 2018, Understanding regional variation in entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial attitude in Europe. The Annals of Regional Science, 47, No. 3, pp. 711-742.
  21. Chel, J.; Endelman, B.; Miller, D. J. and Hole, J., 1991, Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process, Entrepreneurship and Development, 76 , No. 342, pp. 278-285.
  22. Connor, A., 2013, A conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education policy: Meeting government and economic purposes, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 28, No. 61, pp. 546-593.
  23. Corbett, , 2007, Smart cities and entrepreneurship: An agenda for future research, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 149, No. 119763, pp. 97-118.
  24. Counteraction, Journal of Econometrics, No. 44, pp. 215-238.
  25. Dancbergoo, D. J., 1982, defragmenting definitions of entrepreneurial opportunity. Journal of Small Business Management, 49, No. 2, pp. 283-304.
  26. Darban Astana, Alireza; Ghadiri Masoom, Mojtaba and Firoozi, Mohammad Ali, 2012, A study of the relationship between organizational performance and entrepreneurial skills of local rural managers. Case study of villagers in Qazvin province. Rural Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 59-27. (in persian)
  27. Taylor, David and Lizwali, Smith, 1967, Approach to Entrepreneurship Policy, Global Entrepreneurship and Development. Res., 85 , No. 26, pp. 50-61.
  28. Dehghani, Amin and Jamini, Davood, 2018, Assessing the status of entrepreneurship indicators, determinants and development strategies in rural settlements Case study: Javanrood city, Geographical Space Quarterly, Vol. 17, Issue 60, pp. 247-265. (in persian)
  29. Denrel, S., 2003, Guest editors’ introduction to the special issue on technology entrepreneurship. Research policy, 32, No. 2, pp. 990-977.
  30. Dobson, B.; Malkin, MD; Matthews, A.; Pate, K. and Stickle, S., 2003, Mapping rural entrepreneurship. Washington, DC: Corp. for Enterprise Development, Vol. 20, No. 1, 4-20.
  31. Ghadermarzi, Hamed; Jamshidi, Alireza; Gemini, Davood and Nazari Sarmazeh, Hamid, 2015, Identifying Barriers to Rural Women Entrepreneurship Development (Case Study: Shalil District, Ardal County), Regional Planning, Vol. 5, No. 17, pp. 103-118. (in persian)
  32. Ghanbari, Sirous; Dehghan, Mohammad Hossein and Mirki Anari, Hossein, 2018, Spatial Prioritization of Entrepreneurship Development with Emphasis on Agricultural Transformation Industries in Rural Areas Using Vicor Model. Case study: Hossein Aba village, Anar city, Journal of Space Geography, Golestan University Scientific-Research Quarterly, Vol. 7, 26. (in persian)
  33. Gheidari Sajasi, Hamdollah; Shayan, Hamid and Tabasi, Ali , 2020, Assessing the social responsibility of agricultural entrepreneurship companies in the rural areas under study (rural areas of Kashmar, Bardaskan and Khalilabad counties), Vol10, Issue 2. (in persian).
  34. Hailing, G. K. and Gerhard, M., 2020, European rural development. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria. Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 2-14.
  35. Hayes, R.; Choset, L. and Crobdt, Z., 2009, The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 25, No. 1, pp. 1152-1168.
  36. Hosseini, Seyed Morteza; Monshizadeh, Rahmatollah; Razavian, Mohammad Taghi and Murid Sadat, Pegah, 2020, Investigating Barriers to Sustainable Economic Development of Rural Settlements with Entrepreneurship Approach (Case Study: Kiar County- Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province), Quarterly Journal of Research New Attitudes in Human Geography, Vol. 12, Issue 1. (in persian)
  • cointegration, Clive Granger and Byung Sam Yoo Journal of Econometrics, 1990, vol. 44, issue 1-2, 215-238.
  1. Juonez, T. and Ivanesa, A. C., 1995, Beyond creative destruction and entrepreneurial discovery: A radical Austrian approach to entrepreneurship. Organization Studies, 28, No. 4, pp. 467-493.
  2. Kantiloun, G., A conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education policy: Meeting government and economic purposes, Journal of Business Venturing.
  3. Kernez, Y., 1957, Anne Lorentson Individual and Opportunities: A resource-based and institutional view of entrepreneurship January Luzern, Switzerland, 47.
  4. Khayareh, Mohsen and Erfannia, Amin, 2020, Identification and Prioritization of Rural Entrepreneurship Challenges and Opportunities: A Case Study of Bagheran County, Al-Qorat and Shakhan of Birjand County, Village and Development, Vol. 22, Issue 88, pp. 22 - 92. (in persian)
  5. Milerr, L. and Toolus, H., 1986, The impact of environment and entrepreneurial perceptions on venture-creation efforts: Bridging the discovery and creation views of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34, No. 9, pp. 833-856.
  6. Otadi, Mohammad and Safari, Saeed, 2020, Investigating the effect of personality and behavioral characteristics in explaining students' entrepreneurial intent (Case study: Shahed University), Entrepreneurship Development, Vol. 12, Issue 4, pp. 520-500. (in persian)
  7. Petridis, E. and Gravely, N., 2008, Rural women entrepreneurship within co‐operatives: training support. Gender in management: an international journal, Vol. 24, No. 14, p. 262-277.
  8. Reagan, B., 2002, Are High-growth Entrepreneurs Building the Rural Economy?, Center for the Study of Rural America. Kansas City, Mo.: Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. 2, No. 7, p. 8-20.
  9. Rezvani, Mohammad Reza and Najazadeh, Mohammad, 2008, Study and analysis of rural entrepreneurship in the development process of rural areas Case study: Baraan village in the south of Isfahan. Entrepreneurship Development, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 161-182.(in persian)
  10. Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Baghiani, Hamidreza and Jafari, Sara, 2014, New Paradigms of Rural Development; Policies and Governance, Darakhvin Publications, 2014. (in persian)
  11. Sakhteh, Shaghayegh and Karimi, Asef, 2020, Factors Affecting Open Innovation in Digital Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Development, Vol. 11, Issue 4, pp. 737-719. (in persian)
  12. Sauer, R. J., 1986, Agriculture and the rural community: opportunities and challenges for rural development, P.F. Iowa State University, Ames, IA, PP. 6.
  13. Schumpeter, J., 1928, Prospects of Green entrepreneurship as a driver for sustainable and inclusive economic growth in rural Ghana. 20th International Scientific Conference Enterprise and Competitive Environment, 7, No. 13, 220.
  14. Shahabadi, Abolfazl and Chayani, Tayyeba, 2020, The effect of technology and entrepreneurship absorption on economic complexity, Economic Research, Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 916-891. (in persian)
  15. Statistics Center of Iran, 2019, p. 42. (in persian)
  16. Venkartan, S., 1997, Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of economic Literature, 35, No. 1,
  17. Wu, J.A; Palta, C.; Wei, Y.; Chen, X. and Deng, D., 1998, Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of economic Literature, 35, No. 1, pp. 60-85.
  18. Yari, Ahmad; Ghafourian, Fatemeh; Vermeziar, Bint Al-Huda and Mir Eskandari, Seyed Mohammad Reza, 2013, Identification of Entrepreneurship Opportunities in Oil and Gas Industries, National Conference of Entrepreneur University, Mazandaran University Knowledge-Based Industry. (in persian)
  19. Zabihi, Mohammad Reza and Moghaddasi, Alireza, 2009, Entrepreneurship from theory to practice. Tomorrow's World Publications. (in persian)