Document Type : بنیادی(Stem, Basic)
Department of Geography / Faculty of Earth Sciences / Shahid Beheshti University / Tehran / Iran
Department of Geography, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
systemic approach in spatial planning of rural development according to the structural-functional approach
Dr. Hamid Reza Mohammadi, Associate Professor, Faculty of Earth Sciences, 09123471445, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dr. Rahmatollah Monshizadeh, Associate Professor, Faculty of Earth Sciences, 09124358631, email@example.com.
Dr. Bijan Rahmani, Associate Professor, Faculty of Earth Sciences, 09125167853, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mohsen Pakparvar, Student of Geography and Rural Planning, Amayesh, 09171171280 email@example.com
Many experts believe that in order to achieve rural development, it is necessary to pay attention to various fields and factors that interact with each other (Ratan, 1997: 6). A system is anything that derives its form and coherence from the current interactions of its components. According to the main subject of geographical studies, namely the human-environmental system, to discover this nature, it is necessary for the researcher to know the environment and human well, to determine the relationship between the two or the role of each in this system (Ajaghloo Ajaghloo, 2016). A review of research conducted in rural development programs shows a lack of attention to the environmental dimension of rural development in the laws of all programs (Fatah Elahi, Vamiri Police Station, 1396, attention to the development of structures and physical manifestations and disregard for goals Functionality, human beings and rural people (Rahimi and Tavassoli, 2012), and the effect of contextual variables of policy-making environment on the nature and structural variables (Omidi, 2012) are the characteristics and policies adopted in rural development. Lack of a comprehensive model for sustainable rural development leads to a reduction in the effectiveness of rural development programs and in addition to the negative population growth rate in these areas has led to migration and issues such as urban slums and declining population active in the strategic sector of agriculture and production. Will have. Therefore, in order to reduce discrimination and economic and social inequalities in rural areas and national-regional and local development, provide a coherent model consisting of interaction and interrelationships between the environment and inside the system, paying attention to the structures and functions of the space system with spatial interfaces and Systematically guided non-space is mandatory. Village, rural development and development planning are all systemic concepts. Therefore, recognizing them and any action to create the desired change in them requires a proper attitude. The central premise of the present study is that the systemic approach with respect to the structural-functional approach is a suitable model for recognizing and developing and sustainable development of rural areas and subsequently creating the desired change in it.
The present article is fundamental research in nature and applied research in purpose. Systemic approach provides a methodological framework for research and study on the construction and operation of a system; And allows geographers to construct a new form of geographical comprehensiveness as a methodological tool.
Results and discussion
In general, with a review of the projects in rural spatial development and the systemic approach proposed in the present study, the following issues were raised in rural planning. Rural development goals require social justice, facilitating agricultural development along with the expansion of trade and urban industries, and therefore more attention is paid to the economic development of small and medium-sized cities as a link between urban and rural economy can be comprehensive development and balanced distribution. Accelerate interests (Randinley, 1118: 1918). Therefore, paying attention to strengthening the interconnection and interaction between cities and villages is one of the requirements of rural development, which by adopting integrated policies of balanced urban and rural growth and development, as well as economic and social strengthening of small towns to serve the surrounding villages. it's related to. - Paying attention to the system of program production as a functional component that is important based on the form and scope of relationships and how to meet local and regional needs and stimulate motivational factors. Rural planning to achieve the goals of spatial-physical and economic-social organization of rural settlements requires attention to structural-functional approaches in rural areas.
Emphasizing the need for a systemic approach using a structural-functional approach and its relationship to spatial planning, the basic discussion is to provide a definition of the position, roles and interrelationships between system components. 1- Rural functions-structures and internal-external links in the field of rural planning and development can be studied in two axes of strategic policies and indicators of rural spatial organization at the village level with economic, social and physical subsystems. It is related to service functions and service distribution. 2- Paying attention to the factors of spatial-functional vacuum of rural services at the land level in the field of rural planning and development can be traced with service range indices and population threshold, and with regional results The village is related. Organizing existing diversity in terms of regional resources, regional needs and capabilities, division of labor between urban and rural sectors are systematically guided through institutional and managerial structures. 3- Popular institutionalization is one of the internal factors and inputs of the system that includes the support of indigenous knowledge. Institutional approach of participation in order to encourage the motivations of the system that stimulates its internal and external functioning by building structural and operational capacity along with changing the planning system to a region leads to comprehensive and balanced improvement of different parts of the village and local institutional development , Provides national and regional.
Realization of rural development is made possible by a complete set of coherent patterns of capital distribution in the village, organizations, institutions that are accompanied by a series of appropriate external links. A systemic approach in spatial planning that is a related set of various structures and functions with the aim of reducing discrimination and economic and social inequalities in rural areas and national-regional and local development and recognizing the spatial vacuum - mandatory rural service functions Is. A system in spatial planning with a structural-functional approach with a comprehensive understanding of the space organization, provides the basis for local, national and regional institutional development.