Investigating the pedestrian capability, kinetic in strengthening the identity and social cohesion of cities Case study: Comparative analysis of the central context of Naqadeh and Qorveh cities

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Architecture, Urban Planning and Art, Urban Planning Department, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Urmia university, urban planning departement

3 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Urban Planning and Art, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Extended Abstract
Urban spaces are one of the most obvious areas of manifestation of identity, culture and civilization of urban society. Due to its prominent role in the economic, physical, social and political structure of the city, the central context of cities has always been in the focus of attention of experts. Following the physical expansion of cities and the prominent role of the car factor, urban communities have gradually witnessed the decline of environmental and spatial qualities in terms of social solidarity and cohesion. In the meantime, the implementation of sidewalks following the strengthening of social life, indigenous identity and human-centered urban realization has always become an effective policy and strategy at the level of urban communities. In this regard, the main purpose of the present study is a comparative study of the feasibility of creating sidewalks in the central part of the cities of Naqadeh and Qorveh with the aim of strengthening identity, cohesion and social solidarity in the city and seeks to answer the following questions. Is: What is the level of correlation between the components of road construction and identity strengthening and social cohesion and solidarity? And the central context of which of the monocultural cities of Naqadeh and Qorveh can be implemented with the aim of strengthening social cohesion and identity?
In the present study, with a practical purpose, a descriptive-analytical method and using document selection and library methods, the main concepts such as pedestrianism, identity and social cohesion are explained and the main components for specialized evaluation. The research has been extracted. the statistical population and sample size of the present study includes experts, thinkers and specialists in the field of urban sciences and all indigenous citizens of each of the study cities. The sample for the cities of Naqadeh and Qorveh is equal to 383 cases. Also, 30 samples as a targeted sample size from the statistical community of urban experts and experts have been used to prioritize research indicators and sub-indicators. Then, using a questionnaire and observation and interview methods with experts and people, the degree of correlation between the main components of the research and the level of desirability and compatibility of selected indicators and sub-indicators of the research and determining the superior option has been determined. In addition, to ensure the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, the views of the statistical community were used and the Cronbach's alpha test was calculated to be 0.982. Quantitative data analysis method is derived from Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, Pearson correlation and Shannon and Cocoso entropy techniques. The top and final option is selected. In the last stage, in order to facilitate the implementation of the road in the superior option and to achieve favorable conditions in terms of social identity, solidarity and social cohesion among different segments of the people, effective and purposeful suggestions have been presented.

Results and Discussions
The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov quantitative methods and Pearson correlation show that there is a direct and significant relationship between the components of implementation and strengthening of identity and social cohesion. Also, a correlation coefficient of 0.965 between the two components of road construction and strengthening urban cohesion and identity indicates a positive and strong correlation. According to the results of Shannon entropy method, sub-indices of improvement of collective spaces and topographic conditions have the highest and lowest level of importance and priority among other sub-indices in the implementation of road construction, respectively. The results of Cocoso method indicate that the central texture of Naqadeh city has more favorable conditions in terms of social and economic indicators and has an unfavorable situation in the characteristic feature of appearance and urban landscape. Meanwhile, in the central part of Qorveh city, the situation of social indicators and the characteristics of urban appearance and landscape are at an inappropriate level. It has also been in a good position compared to others in terms of natural characteristics, use and performance. According to the results and in general terms, the central texture of Naqadeh city with a final coefficient of 4.252 has more favorable conditions than the central texture of Qorveh city with a weight of 1.83 in terms of road construction feasibility.

According to the results of quantitative methods (based on statistical tests) and analysis of research findings, in order to achieve a suitable situation in the city of Naqadeh, purposeful and efficient suggestions have been presented.
- Utilization of indigenous elements (elements, fountains, ...) in order to strengthen the social and cultural identity of the city
- Creating suitable health spaces according to its ability
- Supporting the presence of traditional retailers (vendors) and allocating spaces for their establishment
- Appropriate role modeling of officials, managers and urban professionals from the valuable experiences of successful communities
- Special attention and emphasis on the allocation of appropriate urban furniture
- Reconstruction and renovation of some commercial functions in the area for the construction of commercial complexes
- Special attention and emphasis on the urban beautification approach
- Efforts to increase the level of mixing of uses
- Utilization of stable and compatible environmental conditions
- Emphasis on increasing sustainable social interactions between people and related organs and organizations to achieve the desired situation
- Utilizing more stable modes of transportation in the study area (such as bicycles) and designing a special route for it
- Assigning a separate route for the traffic of special affairs vehicles
- Organizing and developing the use of green space and recreation-leisure
- Creating and developing arrangements in order to revitalize the study environment around the clock (24-hour city)
- Considering the principles of effective planning and design for the disabled and the elderly
- And organizing the existing urban infrastructure while paying attention to future developments

Keywords: Sidewalk, Identity and Social Cohesion, Central Context, Naqadeh, Qorveh


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 01 April 2021
  • Receive Date: 13 November 2020
  • Revise Date: 01 April 2021
  • Accept Date: 01 April 2021