Spatial Analysis of Urban Settlement Regarding to the Iran, Environmental Indicators

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Geographical Sciences and Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Geographical Sciences and Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


Cognation and discovering the Logic of Settlement Syntax in the Iran It is effective in creating and developing population centers. However, the discovery of spatial relations and the logic that dominates it can be used in the preparation of the document of the fundamental spatial planning of the land of Iran and the landscapes of Iran. This research is based on the theory of space syntax and aims to Land cognation and discovering the rules of spatial syntax of settlements and with a quantitative-analytical and modeling method, using Python programming and geographic information system (GIS), it has analyzed the pattern of space syntax of urban settlements and space configuration. Space syntax of urban settlements in Iran, using environmental parameters such as; elevation, slope, convex and concave surfaces, land surface temperature (LST), precipitation, relative humidity and urban demographic space have been considered and by combining these parameters, the raster data model and new concepts have been invented and explained. After thresholding and coding the raster data model, the spatial relationships between them are processed and Compound Geomorphic Systems for Iran have been extracted. and then the spatial syntax pattern of urban settlements has been analyzed in each of the geomorphic systems and subsystems. The results show that the patterns, context and spatial syntax of urban settlements in Iran have interacted with geomorphic systems and the analysis of spatial syntax can express the macro-strategies of the residential system in Iran based on the foundations of fundamental spatial planning.
The method of space syntax is the basis for understanding the configuration and analysis of environmental structures. In this research, what is considered as a question; The Logic of Settlement Syntax in Iran.
Materials and methods
In this research, the approach of space syntax has been proposed and using quantitative-analytical method, based on environmental parameters, the space syntax pattern of urban settlements has been analyzed; Therefore, in order to achieve the research goals, the following process has been designed:
Step one: Determining and recognizing the land of Iran and understanding the subject of research.
Step 2: Study the documentary sources.
Step 3: Prepare the database.
Step 4: Raster Analysis, Modeling the earth and Environmental classification and threshold. In this step, the optimized Natural Breaks (Jenks) algorithm provided by Jenks is used for environmental threshold This method is one of the 7 methods of classifying tolls in the geographic information system (GIS). The natural breaks method is one solution to the failure of maximum breaks to consider natural groupings of data. In natural breaks, graphs are examined visually to determine logical breaks (or, alternatively, clusters) in the data. Stated another way, the purpose of natural breaks is to minimize differences between data values in the same class and to maximize differences between classes. Later we will see that this is also the objective of the optimal method, but with the optimal method, the classification is done using a numerical measure of classification error, whereas with natural breaks, the classification is subjective.
Step 5: Estimation of the number and total urban population in the class - codes and presentation of new models and graphic Patterns in the field of space analysis and analysis of the spatial syntax pattern of urban settlements in Iran.
Results and discussion
In this research, for the recognition and paraphrase of space, geomorphic and climatic elements; Altitude, slope, land curvature, temperature, precipitation and relative humidity have been analyzed as environmental components, selected and spatial syntax of urban settlements in Iran.
Iran is part of a highland called the Iranian Plateau. Mountainous heights and landscapes and the height differences of this area are the most prominent features of the land, the extent of which is impressive not only in terms of nature but also in terms of residential space and it has caused a lot of environmental diversity and environmental differences.
therefore; Due to altitude diversity; Which is the main factor in the emergence and development of large- Scale Geomorphic systems of different geomorphological formations and landscapes in the land of Iran, in this study, altitude is considered as an independent variable and other parameters as dependent variables.
Generally, the classifications are based on the factors of elevation-slope, elevation-curvature, elevation-temperature, elevation-precipitation and elevation-relative humidity and Iran, based on each of these environmental characteristics, is divided into 4 main systems and a combination of 16 subsystems. Each of these subsystems has certain differences in terms of geomorphic structure and each has an area of Iranian territory.
The final result of this spatial analysis; Procurement of formation systems and subsystems with specific geomorphic characteristics in the territory of Iran and preparation of graphic maps and models Curveo-Hypsographic, Gradio-Hypsographic, Thermo-Hypsographic, Meteoro-Hypsographic and Humio-Hypsographic.
After preparing a map of the formation systems, steps have been taken to analyze the level of civilization in each of the subsystems, to find out which subsystems in each environmental system have the most urban civilization, Or the power of urbanization of each subsystem. This analysis is based on location, number of urban settlements and the total urban population in each subsystem.
The classification system presented in this study, which is done by combining the altitude parameter with 5 other environmental parameters, has presented different Compound Geomorphic Systems. This classification can be applied in various fields of geomorphology and even other natural geography trends. Each of the five proposed systems, which includes 16 other subsystems, will be used in pure geomorphology. To identify, differentiate, and identify Landforms, depending on the type of dominant Geomorphic Systems in each environment, the results can be used in the hierarchical organization of geomorphological research work. Also, for climatic classifications with a geomorphological perspective that climatologists pay less attention to, the results of such research can be useful. The results of this study are widely used in the classification of Compound Geomorphic Systems in various fields of geomorphology and climatology and fields related to human geography and population geography, and in growth and development. The theoretical and practical fields of these sciences will be effective.


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 14 April 2021
  • Receive Date: 23 October 2020
  • Revise Date: 11 April 2021
  • Accept Date: 14 April 2021