Document Type : Research Paper
Master student of geography and rural planning
Based on the literature analysis and the subject's background, two approaches of "technology-oriented rationalism and communication" have always been proposed in developing and transforming planning in countries' management systems. Of course, in the management system of developing countries [such as Iran], the rationalist approach has always prevailed (Healy, 1997). In other words, the "communication approach" that has been in the world management literature since the late twentieth century to pay attention to community-based approaches, as well as improving the dimensions of social capital such as social awareness, social organization, social cohesion, social trust, and social participation. It is taken into consideration; And therefore, in leading countries, it has had positive effects on the process of the spatial evolution of their settlements (Hewings et al., 2018 .(However, with a centralized and "government-oriented" political system in developing countries, little attention has been paid to the approach. No connection. On this basis, a system of thought and approach based on rationalism, which was based more on the growth-oriented view of the economy; And has paid little attention to the social aspects of development and transformation such as social capital in the managerial attitude(Passarella et al., 2018). Numerous challenges have arisen in the spatial evolution of rural settlements in such countries )Joshi, Halseth, & Kanerva, 2016.(
Following such a challenge in the process of improving the social capital of villagers and the spatial evolution of rural settlements in developing countries and Iran, therefore, the improvement of social capital characteristics is affected by the role of local management and in line with the improvement of spatial developments in rural settlements is a question that can be answered within the regions and regions of each country. Accordingly, with an in-depth approach, this study tries to address the challenges of improving the social capital of villagers influenced by the local government's approach to spatial developments in rural settlements in the study area.
The present study investigates the effects of local management's approach on improving social capital in Esfahan's spatial changes. Therefore, in terms of the research method's primary purpose and attitude, it is quantitative research in the category of survey research and the nature of the data. The study's statistical population included 42 villages inhabited by the Esfahandeh ward (Jiroft census, 2016). This study determined the random sample size for completing the questionnaire at the village level randomly selected 30 villages in two groups. Then, random sample households were selected within the chosen villages based on the rural household size (P.P.S) method. In this regard, calculated the sample size calculated for the villagers based on the "Cochran" formula (Sarai, 1393), with a 95% confidence level and an estimated variance of 0.25 (0.5 * 0.5) and a possible probability of 5%, The number of 344 households. Since the number of sample questionnaires in several villages did not meet the quorum required to complete the questionnaire due to the rural household size ratio (P.P.S) method, the number of household questionnaires increased to 370 households.
The analysis of demographic characteristics and aggregation of questions to enter the model and the analysis of structures and relationships expressed in the theoretical framework was performed using graphic software.
Finally, for the present study, Cronbach's alpha value was 0.926. Therefore, the alpha value obtained in this study is reliable because it is close to 1.
Results and discussion
The goodness-of-fit index for structural equations all indicates an unfavorable fit. Thus, based on the view of the villagers and its reflection in the path analysis model, the current approach of local management to improve the dimensions of social capital and as a result of spatial changes has paid little attention and this issue has led to improving the dimensions of spatial changes in rural settlements. Do not take; Therefore, the change of local management approach to community-based approach and strengthening the dimensions of social capital with the aim of people's participation in implementing spatial transformation programs is felt.
In this regard, the effects of local management's approach on improving the villagers' social capital have caused the changes in the environmental-ecological, social, economic, physical-infrastructural dimensions of the residential space in the study area to below. On this basis, the results obtained are inconsistent with the findings of Shafiei Sabet & Mirvahidi, 2018. That he has reached this conclusion in his research in Rey and Pakdasht region; the improvement of the empowerment dimension largely influences rural development through the planning approach. In a way that with a community-based approach in programs and programs, the participation of villagers in the process of spatial transformation is improved.
Local management planning has not been possible with the existing approach; Villagers as one of the factors and pillars of power among other areas interfering in the process of local management planning in rural settlements and in the process of decision-making, decision-making, implementation, monitoring and control of transformation plans and projects.
According to the results obtained in this study, change and reform the approach to the process of rural management system in Iran and the study area by selecting appropriate social and economic policies of the government and using appropriate methods to improve the social capital of villagers in the process of rural local planning and management is emphasized.
An approach in which the previous view with expertise from top to bottom replaces local initiatives and by delegating authority and responsibility to local management, local potentials and capacity of villagers and recognizing villagers alongside all actors and stakeholders involved in the management process By improving the dimensions of social capital of the villagers productively and effectively, it provided the ground for positive spatial changes in rural settlements.
Local management, approaches, social cohesion and trust, spatial transformation, Esfahan section, Jiroft