An analysis of the geopolitical system of world food with emphasis on the position of Iran

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Geography of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty member of Tehran University

3 Department of Geography , University of Tehran , Tehran, Iran

4 Professor of Political Geography, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Tourism Management, Faculty of Management & Accounting, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Extended Abstract
Introduction
In recent decades, Power and its measurement methods have been one of the inexhaustible concerns of most experts in the fields of political geography and geopolitics, international relations, political science, etc. Doing plenty of research and studies to assess the status of national power represents the interest of researchers in this topic and its importance. Understanding of the nation power of country and its position relative to other countries, Political leaders helps to have a proper strategy to maximize their goals and realize the benefits. The main factors shaping of national power is Located in different areas and a range of spiritual and material are included.
Methodology
In this paper we used the exploring technique as the one of the integrated research methods. Data has been gathered using the library and documentary methods, surfing the internet for national and international scientific databases such as FAO. The Delphi method (classic) to select strategic products of food of Iran (using The expert panel consisted of 33 patients during three surveys), the promethee and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for ranking countries in the geopolitics of food and Software of Excel and GIS for data analysis and drawing maps are used.
Result and discussion
Based on the consensus of experts in research, the results show that wheat is the most Iran's strategic products of food followed by rice, barley, meat, oil, Maize and sugar. This seven-product were selected as Iran’s strategic products of food from the perspective of experts. The findings of this study indicate that the main exporting countries of strategic products of food are powers in the geopolitics of food and 15 powerful are America, France, Argentina, Germany, Australia, Brazil, India, Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Canada, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Russia, and Italy respectively. Based on the average data from 1992 to 2011 from FAO, Iran has had the ranks of fifteenth in export of strategic products of food between countries not only doesn’t have a good Sphere of influence in geopolitics of food that a vulnerable country is known.
Based on the average data from 1992 to 2011 from FAO, Iran has had the ranks of fifteenth, thirteenth, fifteenth and forty-fifth respectively in production, consumption, import and export of wheat. Also, the rank of Iran in wheat producing with 1.8 (tons/hectares) is thirty-second among the all countries. The results of the ARIMA model shows that Iran would be a small importer of wheat till 2021 at least. Based on the results, the most important exporters of wheat from 1992 to 2011 have been: USA, Canada, France, Australia, Argentina, Russia, Germany, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and England respectively. Hence, according to the results of Analytic hierarchy process and five factors including Political stability, Transportation advantages, Stability in the production and export, Economic relations with Iran and Political relations with Iran and their variables, the best countries for importing of wheat to Iran are respectively Russia, Kazakhstan, Germany, France, Ukraine, England, Argentina, USA, Australia, and Canada.
Conclusion
According to our aims in this research (i.e. measuring and ranking national power in the international geopolitical food), findings show that Iran is a dependent country in the international geopolitical food. It is obvious that the geopolitical dependency influence on the national power of country negatively. Therefore, it is necessary to find ways to balance import and export in order to adjust or overcome the dependency.
Key word: Food, Strategic Products of Food, National Power, Geopolitics of Food
Extended Abstract
Introduction
In recent decades, Power and its measurement methods have been one of the inexhaustible concerns of most experts in the fields of political geography and geopolitics, international relations, political science, etc. Doing plenty of research and studies to assess the status of national power represents the interest of researchers in this topic and its importance. Understanding of the nation power of country and its position relative to other countries, Political leaders helps to have a proper strategy to maximize their goals and realize the benefits. The main factors shaping of national power is Located in different areas and a range of spiritual and material are included.
Methodology
In this paper we used the exploring technique as the one of the integrated research methods. Data has been gathered using the library and documentary methods, surfing the internet for national and international scientific databases such as FAO. The Delphi method (classic) to select strategic products of food of Iran (using The expert panel consisted of 33 patients during three surveys), the promethee and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for ranking countries in the geopolitics of food and Software of Excel and GIS for data analysis and drawing maps are used.
Result and discussion
Based on the consensus of experts in research, the results show that wheat is the most Iran's strategic products of food followed by rice, barley, meat, oil, Maize and sugar. This seven-product were selected as Iran’s strategic products of food from the perspective of experts. The findings of this study indicate that the main exporting countries of strategic products of food are powers in the geopolitics of food and 15 powerful are America, France, Argentina, Germany, Australia, Brazil, India, Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Canada, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Russia, and Italy respectively. Based on the average data from 1992 to 2011 from FAO, Iran has had the ranks of fifteenth in export of strategic products of food between countries not only doesn’t have a good Sphere of influence in geopolitics of food that a vulnerable country is known.
Based on the average data from 1992 to 2011 from FAO, Iran has had the ranks of fifteenth, thirteenth, fifteenth and forty-fifth respectively in production, consumption, import and export of wheat. Also, the rank of Iran in wheat producing with 1.8 (tons/hectares) is thirty-second among the all countries. The results of the ARIMA model shows that Iran would be a small importer of wheat till 2021 at least. Based on the results, the most important exporters of wheat from 1992 to 2011 have been: USA, Canada,
Key word: Food, Strategic Products of Food, National Power, Geopolitics of Food

Keywords

Main Subjects



Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 18 July 2021
  • Receive Date: 05 December 2020
  • Revise Date: 22 September 2021
  • Accept Date: 18 July 2021