Investigating the importance of the feeling of security in the quality of urban spaces And its effective factors; Case study of the central sidewalk of Hamedan and surrounding neighborhoods

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Gilan University

2 Master's student of Urban Planning-Urban Planning, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Gilan University


Security is the prerequisite for a healthy society and the feeling of security is the basis for the development of human societies, and the prosperity of a community in the group of maintaining and maintaining security and the feeling of security resulting from it; Therefore, establishing security in the urban structure and citizens' sense of security is of increasing importance. There are some urban spaces that provide the ground for disturbing order and security. Space and mass are closely related; Therefore, human behavior in space and different places in relation to the sense of security with a specific shape and geometry, as well as with the function embedded in it, is different and in many cases, space; Human motivation in the occurrence of certain behaviors is essential to create security in that place and space. Creating quiet spaces away from social unrest with a sense of security to the people and also increasing the quality of urban spaces by paying attention to the basic needs of urban life is considered as one of the benefits of urban space. In many cases, the type of physical space design, the role that a particular place takes on, and the social dimensions of an area lead to spaces becoming safe or, conversely, unsafe. In other words, urban spaces with their characteristics are somehow a trigger for the crime. Apart from the social and cultural effects of planning and design, safe urban environments on patterns of citizenship behavior and improving the environmental quality of urban spaces, reducing urban crime and crime are independent and important issues.
The purpose of this study is to determine the causal relationship between the independent variable of feeling of security and the dependent variable of the quality of urban spaces.The research method in this research is correlational and within the framework of analytical methods.The method of data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire.Indicators and factors evaluated in the research were extracted with an emphasis on measurability and measurability by reviewing the relevant texts.For this purpose,the number of extracted factors and indicators were documented in accordance with the study area.Pearson correlation test and linear regression were performed to investigate the relationship between the feeling of security and the quality of urban spaces in the area of the central sidewalk.And with SmartPLS software,the model fits the calculation model and the structural analytical model in the research on the variables was presented.To calculate the reliability and validity (mean of extracted variance of AVE),the factors of the questionnaires were performed among 365 people referring to the central pedestrian urban spaces studied and urban planning and social science experts.The sample population was selected as a cluster between experts and citizens and the reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by Cronbach's alpha of 0.899.This area is located in the center of the city,which has become a central sidewalk in recent years.In this regard,research was conducted to determine whether citizens and visitors feel safe in this urban space or feel safe.In their opinion,it depends on what factors.This stage of sampling is measured in one step.The indicators and dimensions used in the research have a multidimensional structure.
Results and discussion
Walking alone at night,women traveling alone at night,traveling in their own cars on the streets around the square,sending children to school for long distances are acceptable to residents and staff.Social disorder sense of security with correlation coefficient P=0.74;From the point of view of the visitors to the square and the merchant,acknowledging that since the study complex has become a sidewalk,the rate of burglary,the rate of extortion and extortion of citizens in this place,the rate of harassment of people in this space,the rate of drug use And the public presence of addicts,car theft in the square itself has been eliminated and has been reduced in the surrounding areas.Therefore,according to the components analyzed the sense of security, it can be said that the greater the sense of security P=0/871 and the degree of correlation of its indicators The rate of conversion of urban spaces into urban spaces with a sense of security, including; Holding religious and cultural activities and ceremonies, entertainment and service activities, the level of communication between people, how women and children are present in this space, access to various types of public transportation, distribution of bus and taxi stations, access for pedestrians and cyclists, etc. It also increases in proportion to the feeling of security in this urban space.
In general, the results indicate that there is a significant relationship between the feeling of security and the quality of urban spaces. Therefore, it can be concluded that urban spaces according to the existing social conditions; That is, the formation of spaces, the function of spaces, can affect the level of security. Creating calm spaces away from social unrest and also increasing the quality of the environment by paying attention to the basic needs of urban life is considered as the desirability of urban space. The results show that the more people are present in the form of social support and monitoring in urban spaces, the more citizens feel safe. Considering the effect of citizens 'presence on the feeling of security, it can be concluded that maintaining the security of the city is the main task of urban spaces and open and public (public) areas of a city in case of citizens' traffic and supervision on the central sidewalk. Descriptive findings related to independent variables indicate that respondents rated the risk of trust and social disorder at a high level. In relation to the social support variable; Most respondents had no hope of helping others in an emergency and considered their help and assistance in the community to be low. Respondents also assess the incidence of delinquency in the central sidewalk environment at a low level.
Keywords: the feeling of security, trust, urban space, central sidewalk, Hamedan, SEM.


Main Subjects

  • لطفی، صدیقه و بردی آنامرادنژاد، رحیم و ساسانی‌پور، محمد (1393). بررسی احساس امنیت در فضاهای عمومی (مطالعه موردی کلان‌شهر شیراز). مجله پژوهش و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، 5 (19)، 39-56.
  • منتظرالحجه، مهدی و شریف‌نژاد، مجتبی و رجبی، مریم (1396). سنجش عوامل کالبدی مؤثر بر حس امنیت در فضاهای شهری از دیدگاه سالمندان؛ موردپژوهی: میدان خان یزد، نشریه معماری و شهرسازی ایران، 91-105.
  • امیر کافی، مهدی (1387)، بررسی احساس امنیت و عوامل مؤثر بر آن؛ موردمطالعه: شهر تهران، 1 (1)، 1-26.
  • امینی، الهام و برومند، مریم و روح‌افزا، فاطمه. (1393). ارزیابی عوامل مؤثر بر افزایش کیفیت فضاهای عمومی در شهرهای جدید نمونه موردی: شهر جدید پرند، فصلنامه آمایش محیط، 7(26)، 89-110.
  • سلطانی، لیلا و بیک‌محمدی، حسن و حیدری، سمیه (1395)، تحلیل فضایی احساس امنیت در محلات مختلف شهری، موردمطالعه: شهر قدس، پژوهش‌های راهبردی امنیت و نظم اجتماعی، 5 (3)، 87-104.
  • ایزدی، محمدسعید و حقی، محمدرضا (1394)، ارتقای احساس امنیت در فضاهای عمومی با بهره‌گیری از طراحی شهری، هنرهای زیبا، 20(2)، 5-12.
  • سجادزاده، حسن و ایزدی، محمدسعید و حقی، محمدرضا (1396)، سنجش عوامل محیطی مؤثر بر احساس امنیت ساکنان سکونتگاه‌های غیررسمی، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای برنامه‌ریزی شهری، 5(4)، 705-720.
  • سرور، هوشنگ و آهار، حسن و ذوالفقاری، امیرعلی و قیصری، حدیثه (1396)، تحلیل آثار گسترش بر امنیت محلات شهری؛ مطالعه موردی: شهر مراغه، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای برنامه‌ریزی شهری، 5(2)، 315-335.
  • امان‌پور، سعید (1399)، تحلیل رابطه پایداری مناطق شهری و امنیت اجتماعی شهروندان در کلان‌شهر اهواز، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای برنامه‌ریزی شهری، 8(2)، 237-257.
  • جلالیان، سید اسحاق (1399)، بررسی تأثیر عوامل کالبدی بوستان پلیس بر احساس امنیت شهروندان؛ مطالعه موردی: بوستان تهران‌پارس، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای برنامه‌ریزی شهری، 8(3)، 597-612.
  • رسولی‌شورستانی، جلیل (1397)، بررسی و تحلیل نقش عوامل کالبدی و اجتماعی بر احساس امنیت در فضاهای شهری گرگان، دانش انتظامی گلستان، 9(3)، 33-56.
  • مؤیدفر، سعیده و رضایی، حجت و فاطمی، مهران (1398)، تحلیلی بر پراکنش فضایی احساس امنیت در استان یزد با استفاده از الگوی ویکور، پژوهش‌های راهبردی مسائل اجتماعی ایران، 8(1)، 1-18.
  • Mahrous, A., Moustafa, Y., & Abou El-Ela, M. (2018). Physical characteristics and perceived security in urban parks: Investigation in the Egyptian context, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 9(4): 3055-3066.
  • Bishop, K. & Marshall, N. (2017). Social Interactions and the Quality of Urban Public Space. Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies, 63-70.
  • Kim, H., ,2018, Designing multiple urban space: an actor-network theory analysis on multiplicity and stability of public space. Journal of Urban Design. 24, 249-268.
  • Carmona, M. (2019). Principles for public space design, planning to do better. Urban Design International, 24, 47–59.
  • Mehaffy, M. W., Elmlund, P., & Farrell, K. (2019). Implementing the new urban agenda: The central role of public space. Urban Design International, 24(1), 4–6.
  • Chu, X., Deng, X., Jin, G., Wang, Z., Li, Z., 2017. Ecological security assessment based on ecological footprint approach in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China. Phys. Chem. Earth A/B/C 101, 43–51.
  • Khalili, A., Nayyeri Fallah, S. (2018). Role of social indicators on vitality parameter to enhance the quality of women׳s communal life within an urban public space (case: Isfahan׳s traditional bazaar, Iran), Frontiers of Architectural Research, 7(3), 440-454.
  • Bivina, G.R., Parida, M. (2019). modelling perceived pedestrian level of service of sidewalks: a structural equation approach, Transport, 34(3), 339-350.
  • Jahan, Md.I., Mazumdar, A., Hadiuzzaman, Md., Mashrur, Sk.Md., & Murshed, M.N. (2020). Analyzing Service Quality of Pedestrian Sidewalks under Mixed Traffic Condition Considering Latent Variables, Journal of Urban Plan and development, 146(2), 1-12.
  • Vallejo-Borda, J.A., Cantillo, V., & Rodriguez-Valencia, A. (2020). A perception-based cognitive map of the pedestrian perceived quality of service on urban sidewalks, Transportation Research Part F, 73, 107-118.
  • Odufuwa, B., Badiora, A.I,. Olaleye, D.O,. Akinlotan, P.A,. & Adebara, T.M. (2019). Perceived personal safety in built environment facilities: A Nigerian case study of urban recreation sites, Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 25, 24-35.
  • Ottoni, C.A., Sims-Gould, J., & Winters, M. (2021). Safety perceptions of older adults on an urban greenway: Interplay of the social and built environment, Health and Place 70, 1-10.
  • Bornioli, A., Parkhurst, G., & Morgan, P.L., 2018. The psychological wellbeing benefits of place engagement during walking in urban environments: a qualitative photoelicitation study. Health Place, 53, 228–236.
  • Amegbor, P.M., Rosenberg, M.W., Kuuire, V.Z., 2018. Does place matter? A multilevel analysis of victimization and satisfaction with personal safety of seniors in Canada. Health Place 53, 17–25.
  • Kim, D., 2019. The transportation safety of elderly pedestrians: modeling contributing factors to elderly pedestrian collisions. Accid. Anal. Prev. 131, 268–274.
  • Kimpton, A., 2017. A spatial analytic approach for classifying greenspace and comparing greenspace social equity. Appl. Geogr. 82, 129–142.
  • Ruijsbroek, A., Droomers, M., Hardyns, W., Groenewegen, P.P., & Stronks, K., 2016. The interplay between neighbourhood characteristics: the health impact of changes in social cohesion, disorder and unsafety feelings. Health Place 39, 1–8.
  • De Silva, C.S., Warusavitharana, E.J., & Ratnayake, R., 2017. An examination of the temporal effects of
  • environmental cues on pedestrians’ feelings of safety. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 64, 266–274.
  • Rey Gozalo, G., Miguel Barrigón, J., & David Montes González, M. (2019). Perceptions and Use of Urban Green Spaces on the Basis of Size. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 46, 125-136.
  • Zavadskas, E.K., Bausys, R., Mazonaviciute, I., 2019. Safety evaluation methodology of urban public parks by multi-criteria decision making. Landsc. Urban Plann. 189, 372–381.
  • Kim, E.S., Chen, Y., Kawachi, I., VanderWeele, T.J., 2020. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion and subsequent health and well-being in older adults: an outcome-wide longitudinal approach. Health Place, 66, 102420.
  • Lachapelle, U., & Cloutier, M.S., 2017. On the complexity of finishing a crossing on time: elderly pedestrians, timing and cycling infrastructure. Transport. Res. Part A Policy Pract 96, 54–63.
  • De Donder, L., Buffel, T., Dury, S., De Witte, N., & Vert´ e, D., 2013. Perceptual quality of neighbourhood design and feelings of unsafety. Ageing Soc. 33, 917–937.
  • Lord, S., Cloutier, M.S., Garnier, B., Christoforou, Z., 2018. Crossing road intersections in old age—with or without risks? Perceptions of risk and crossing behaviours among the elderly. Transport. Res. F Traffic Psychol. Behav. 55, 282–296.
  • Ottoni, C.A., Sims-Gould, J., Winters, M., Heijnen, M., & McKay, H.A., 2016. “Benches become like porches”: built and social environment influences on older adults’ experiences of mobility and well-being. Soc. Sci. Med. 169, 33–41.
  • Mendes de Leon, C.F., Cagney, K.A., Bienias, J.L., Barnes, L.L., Skarupski, K.A., Scherr, P. , Evans, D.A., 2009. Neighborhood social cohesion and disorder in relation to walking in community-dwelling older adults: a multilevel analysis. J. Aging Health, 21, 155–171.