Document Type : Research Paper
Art University of Isfahan
M.A. of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
Following the expansion of cities and increasing the separation of the city from nature, several problems such as air pollution, reduced social life in relation to nature, incompatibility of nature with the body of the city and waste of natural resources have plagued cities, especially metropolises. A new approach to biophilic urban planning, considering the relationship between the city and citizens with nature as a basic principle in planning, has been presented in order to solve the above problems. The purpose of this article is to provide a multidimensional framework for measuring the biophilic urban planning approach on a large scale and to analyze and rank the fifteen regions of Isfahan metropolis based on this approach. Because the Isfahan metropolis in recent years has faced a significant increase in population and related environmental problems. Considering the potentials such as environmental capacities such as Zayandehrood river, green spaces and vegetation in this city, by applying the biophilic urban planning approach, many problems can be overcome and sustainable development can be provided. Therefore, in line with the above goal, first biophilic urban planning measures have been extracted by referring to theoretical foundations and then the situation of fifteen regions of Isfahan metropolis has been analyzed based on these measures. Finally, while discussing the results, suggestions for improvement of the regions of Isfahan metropolis based on the biophilic urban planning approach have been presented.
The present descriptive-analytical study has a mixed paradigm due to the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method used in this research is survey type and the qualitative method is case study. Also, this research is a part of applied research in terms of purpose. The required information has been collected in order to describe and analyze the indicators by library and field methods. In addition, methods of spatial analysis (network analysis, Euclidean distance analysis and density analysis) and remote sensing have been used to analyze the data. After describing and analyzing each measure, the regions were classified separately for each measure according to the natural break classification method, and the regions were assigned points based on a five-point Likert scale. In the next step, the swara method was used to weigh the components and measures. The swara method or the stepwise weight assessment ratio analysis method was first proposed in 2010 by Keršulienė, Zavadskas and Turskis. This method is one of the newest methods of weighting the components and measures, which is superior to other weighting methods in terms of accuracy in evaluating the views of experts regarding the importance of criteria. In order to weight based on the Swara method, through the method of qualitative sampling of known cases, 30 experts were selected and then the components and the measures of each component were weighted based on their views. In the next step, according to the weight of the measures of each component, the ranking map of each component was prepared by coding the Python plugin in GIS software and finally, according to the weight of the components and the overlap of the ranking maps of each component through the mentioned coding, the ranking of the regions was done based on the biophilic urban planning approach.
3- Results and Discussion
The fifteen regions of Isfahan metropolis are classified into five ranks in terms of biophilic urban planning infrastructure and conditions:
- Very deprived regions: Including regions 14 and 15 which are in a very unfavorable situation in terms of biophilic potentials and infrastructure and biophilic urban planning to increase the welfare and health of residents for these regions is the first priority.
- Deprived regions: Regions 7, 11 and 12 are at this rank. These regions are unfavorable in terms of biophilic and planning for these regions is the second priority.
- Semi-successful regions: Regions 2, 4, 5, 8 and 13 are in relatively good condition in terms of biophilic and planning for these regions is the third priority.
- Successful regions: Regions 6 and 10 are at this rank. These regions are in a good position in terms of biophilic and are the fourth priority of planning.
- Very successful regions: Regions 1, 3 and 9 are in a very good position in terms of biophilic potentials and infrastructure compared to other regions, and planning for these regions is the last priority.
In this article, in order to analyze and rank the fifteen regions of Isfahan metropolis by using the biophilic urban planning approach, after reviewing the theoretical foundations of the subject and considering the case study, biophilic urban planning measures in the form of five components of social life, economic dynamics, green transportation, Environmental sustainability and efficient urban management were extracted and analyzed in regions. The results show the difference of fifteen regions in terms of potentials and conditions of biophilic urban planning in five ranks. so that in the central and western regions, especially regions 1, 3 and 9, the main conditions and infrastructures of biophilic urban planning are accumulated and also regions 14 and 15 are at the most deprived rank.
Among the most important improvement measures in order to implement the biophilic urban planning approach in the metropolis of Isfahan, we can mention preventing the change of landuse of green spaces and gardens, rehabilitating rivers and creeks, enabling citizens to participate in nature conservation through environmental education and applying their perspectives in planning, establishment of continuous cycling and pedestrian routes, improvement the state of public transportation through the implementation of the remaining metro lines and establishment routes and bus stops in regions with poor service levels, providing financial incentives for environmentally sensitive executive programs, supporting nature-related NGOs, managing wastewater treatment and preventing it from entering rivers and creeks and improve urban agriculture.