Document Type : Research Paper
Assistant Professor of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
The crisis of the outbreak of Covid 19 virus in Iran, which started in late February 2020 and continues to this day, has caused negative effects on the tourism economy, including businesses related to this sector. In this regard, the coastal city of Babolsar and the coastal villages of this township, which are located along the coastline, in recent decades with the development of tourism, many businesses have been formed in this area in this area. These businesses are affected so that businesses related to this sector such as accommodation and hospitality services, transportation, leisure services, business and the like as a result of reducing the number of tourists and temporary closure of this type of business The work of the government to control this crisis is in jeopardy. Therefore, in order to reduce the risks and challenges ahead, the discussion of tourism business resilience in the face of this crisis is a very important and key issue, so recognizing and explaining the level of resilience of tourism businesses in the study area and Each of the factors affecting it is very important and necessary in order for tourism businesses to adapt to this crisis and also return businesses to their original state and improve them. In this regard, officials and implementers based on the findings of this study can formulate and implement appropriate policies, strategies and laws and regulations to improve the level of resilience to this crisis. Therefore, considering the importance and necessity of this discussion, this study tries to answer the following question:
What is the level of resilience of tourism businesses in the study area against the Covid 19 virus outbreak crisis and what factors are affected?
This research is based on the nature of application and in terms of descriptive-analytical survey method. The data collection tool of each item was a questionnaire. The required variables of this study were selected from the study area using the study of valid scientific sources and field study. In this study, the questions related to the questionnaire variables were adjusted from very high to very low using a 5-point Likert scale. The analysis unit in this research is the business owners related to the tourism sector in Babolsar city. Also, based on the Cochran sampling formula, the sample size of 200 business owners related to the tourism sector was determined and the sampling method in this study was simple random sampling. The collected data were analyzed by one-sample t-test, independent t-test, regression and path analysis.
in order to influence each of the independent variables on the level of business resilience as a dependent variable, multiple regression model and path analysis were used. The results of regression model show that the multiple correlation coefficient of the resilience level of tourism businesses with independent variables is equal to 0.75, which is a direct correlation with high intensity. Thus, this indicates the correlation of independent variables of dependence on the tourism sector. Value identity is related to business, social capital, human capital and the component of economic factors with the dependent variable level of business resilience. Also, the coefficient of determination is 0.62 and indicates that 0.62% of the changes in the level of business resilience in the coastal city and villages of Babolsar can be explained through the above five independent variables. The amount of variance calculated in this model is equal to 52.03 and its significance level is less than one percent. Also, among the components, the economic component has the most positive effect on the level of resilience, with a beta of 0.411 and the component of dependence on the tourism sector has the most negative effect on the level of resilience with a beta of -0.106. Also, the impact of management factors and government policies on the resilience of tourism businesses has not been significant. In this regard, although the government has provided support to tourism business owners in rural and urban areas, business owners have not considered such support sufficient. Also, some decisions have been taken to support the tourism business at the provincial and national levels, which have not yet been implemented.
. In general, among the variables affecting the level of resilience, after the variable of economic factors, the variable of social capital has the most impact on the level of resilience of businesses and among the indirectly influential variables, the variable of social capital has the most impact through Economic factors in improving the level of resilience. In this regard, the results of this study are consistent with the results of studies by Chaohari et al. (2018) and Aldrich (2011). On the other hand, the component of dependence on the tourism sector, directly and indirectly, has had a significant inverse effect on the resilience of businesses. According to the results of this model, as the dependence of business owners on the tourism sector increases, the level of vulnerability of businesses related to this sector increases and as a result, the level of resilience of business owners to the crisis decreases. Dependence on the tourism sector has had a significant inverse direct effect on the level of resilience and indirectly through a significant inverse effect on economic factors, the level of resilience of businesses related to the tourism sector in the cities and villages of the region The study has played a role. Accordingly, the results of this study are consistent with the findings of Dahles and Socilovati (2015) and Lasso and Dahles (2015).