Analysis of divergence and gap of income groups in terms of housing in Isfahan metropolis

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Geography, Seyed Jamaluddin Asadabadi University, Asadabad, Iran

2 PhD in Geography and Urban Planning, Isfahan Municipality, Isfahan, Iran


Housing plays an essential role in the economic development of any country and constitutes % 10-20 of the total economic activity of each country and is also the largest fixed asset of households. The need for housing is not only one of the basic human foundations, but also the standard of living of the people. Global access to housing has been on the agenda for sustainable development. The right to adequate housing for all urban residents is one of the most important factors in promoting inclusive urban development. In order to promote this right, proponents of urban rights have emphasized the urgent need for real estate agencies, government leaders and municipalities to move forward in urban space through a comprehensive approach to housing development projects. As affordable housing can provide for low-income urban groups. Accordingly, the aim of the present research is quantitative and qualitative indicators analysis of housing in the metropolis of Isfahan.
The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The statistical population is related to the legal boundaries of Isfahan in 2016. SAW and Topsis models have been used to the data analysis. In this research, have used 16 indicator for status of quantitative and qualitative housing indicators of low-income groups in Isfahans.Quantitative and qualitative indicators of housing for low-income groupshave been analyzed including the type of occupation, infrastructure level, quality of buildings, type of materials, number of rooms and household dimensions, housing facilities in Isfahan.
Results and discussion
The total percentage of ownership has increased from % 76.2 to % 61.5 from 2007 to 2016. However, the share of tenants has increased from %16.6 to %26.3, which is almost double. This indicates the downward trend of this index during the study period. The amount of rent in the first four deciles was 20.15, 35, 15.7, 25, respectively in 2007 .In 2016, it has increased to %57.7, % 35.9, %27.5, and % 15. An important point in this regard is the promotion of this index for the fourth decile of the target community. The infrastructure average of residential units in the lower deciles has been decreasing in all deciles from 2007 to 2016. The important point is the large distance between the lower deciles and the upper deciles. While on average %62.8 of the quality of buildings in Isfahan is acceptable, but this index is equal to %36.3 among low-income groups, which is very inappropriate. This shows that the useful life of residential units occupied by these groups is lower than other income groups. The residential units materials of low-income groups are less resistant than other income groups in Isfahan. The number of rooms average per household for low-income groups is 2.6. This figure is 2.9 for middle-income groups and 3.2 for high-income groups in Isfahan. While there are only 0.63 room for a person in the lower income grouss, this figure is equal to 1.3 rooms for a wealthy person. Therefore, the results analysis of the individual-to-room index has showed that there is 1.6 people per room in a low-income household. Also,there are 0.78 people for a room in the high-income group. On the other hand, the household dimension is also higher in low-income groups than in other income groups. In terms of housing facility index, the percentage of lower income groups is lower than others. The results of SAW and Topsis models also confirm the quantitative and qualitative status of housing indicators among income groups. The SAW and Topsis score for lower-income groups is lower than the average, and the high rate of change among income groups has indicated divergence and gaps between income groups. Therefore, according to the results of the calculations of SAW and Topsis models, it can be said that the quantitative and qualitative status of housing indicators among low-income groups in Isfahan is not in a good situation.
Examination of housing indicators of low-income groups has shown the low quality of housing in this group in Isfahan.While the average ownership in high-income groups in Isfahan is % 70 and for low-income groups is % 35. Therefore, the type of ownership of the owner is lower among the low-income groups of Isfahan than other groups. The average per capita of housing in low-income deciles has been 55 square meters over the past five years. During the same period, this index was equal to 105 square meters for high-income groups. This indicates a declining per capita in low-income deciles. A study of the quality of buildings has showed that % 31.3 of low-income housing groups are destructive and only % 36.3 are acceptable. However, the percentage of destructive housing in high-income groups is only % 8. This indicates a high rate of destruction in the homes of low-income groups, which exacerbates their need for adequate housing. In terms of materials, Residential houses of low-income groups in Isfahan has made of brick or iron and stone( %67) and 10% of metal frame ( %8) or concrete( %2). Therefore, the level of their destruction has increased due to the low resistance of the housing materials of low-income groups. So the need for better quality housing is felt more for this class. Per capita room of low-income groups is 0.63 in the city of Isfahan while this rate is 0.85 for medium-income groups and 1.28 for high-income groups. Housing facilities are less suitable among low-income groups. Improper location of low-income groups has exacerbated environmental problems and reduced access to urban facilities and services. n addition, according to the results of calculations of SAW and Topsis methods, it can be said that the quantitative and qualitative status of housing indicators among low-income groups in Isfahan is not in a good situation.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 16 September 2021
  • Receive Date: 25 June 2020
  • Revise Date: 13 September 2021
  • Accept Date: 16 September 2021
  • First Publish Date: 16 September 2021