Investigating the Urban Poverty with Emphasis on Social Indicators Between 2006 and 2016 )Case Study: Ardebil City(

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Tabriz University

2 Mohaghegh Ardabili University



Urban poverty is a multidimensional problem that Faces people with many limitations including limited access to employment and income, lack of adequate housing and services, unhealthy and violent environments, and lack of access to social services and health support mechanisms, and Educational. Thus, in explaining spatial inequality and urban poverty we cannot simply focus on its economic dimension: because Citizen poverty and social poverty are also other dimensions of poverty that are central to the spread all kinds of social harm and deviation. Today, the weaknesses of poverty studies and poverty-based approaches in cities are evident to almost everyone. It can be said that a realistic understanding and analysis of poverty in urban areas requires more attention to the social dimensions of this problem. Since urban poverty has been the focus of economic attention in most of the cases and few studies have addressed the social aspects affecting urban poverty, Therefore, the present study, with emphasis on the effective social aspects in this field, identifies the extent of social poverty and its pattern of spread in Ardabil during 2006 to 2016 to provide a platform for policymakers, planners, and urban managers to make decisions about reducing poverty and social deprivation problems in urban areas.


The purpose of this study is practical and in terms of the nature and method of the research we use descriptive-analytical methods. Source of cited indices and quantities used, data and information of statistical blocks of general population census and housing of Ardabil city during 2006- 2016 and maps (GIS), Deputy Governor of Ardabil Planning.

The statistical population of the study is the statistical blocks of Ardabil city during the period of 2006 to 2016. The ARC / GIS software has been used to illustrate the poverty situation in this city using the Hot Spot Analysis technique of spatial autocorrelation. Moran's statistic was used to analyze the distribution patterns of urban poverty.

Results and discussion

To study the spatial inequality and determination of urban poverty in Ardebil city, we used the data of 2006 and 2016 statistical blocks and in Arc / GIS software using its capabilities, hot spot analysis are done for all the indices used in Ardabil. This analysis calculates the Gateway-RD statistic for all the effects in the data. Also, with respect to the calculated Z score, it can be shown in which blocks the data are clustered with high or low values. According to this analysis, the higher the Z score, the higher the values clustered and it make hot spots. In the case of the negative and significant Z in terms of Statistical, we can say that the smaller the Z score, the more severe the clustering of the lower values and indicating cold spots. According to the data obtained, in 2006, out of 5142 urban blocks in Ardebil, about 53% were in very deprived and deprived condition, 26% were in moderate condition and about 21% were in good condition. According to 2016 data, these percentages are 46, 23, 33, respectively, among 6439 urban blocks, which also indicates that Ardabil city blocks in terms of social indices in 2016 compared to 2006 is in a better position. At this stage, after identifying the cold and hot spots for each of the indices, the maps are combined and finally the final map for both periods 2006 and 2016, according to the Morris Index is categorized in 5 levels from the most privileged to the most deprived. After classifying Ardebil city blocks in 2006 and 2016, Arc / GIS software and spatial autocorrelation tool have been used to illustrate the pattern of distribution and distribution of this inequality.

It is used to analyze patterns of distribution and distribution of effects and phenomena in space and space and is known as the Moran statistic. In this study, the calculated Moran index for 2006 is 0.100517 and for 2016 is 0.137205. These values are smaller than one and on the other hand the value of P-value is zero. It can be concluded that the data in question have spatial autocorrelation and since the value of Moran is positive and close to one, so the spatial pattern of poverty in Ardebil In 2006 and 2016 it has been clustered and concentrated. In Ardebil's poverty and spatial inequality cluster model, the most disadvantaged and most disadvantaged clusters are located in the northern, western and western parts, and the focus of these clusters is largely influenced by urban creep and rural core integration to the body of the city. These embedded textures in the city due to the prevailing conditions of their formation, both physically and economically and socially had vulnerable and unstable textures and formed double poles at the city level.


A deeper scrutiny of and awareness of each community is the first step in planning for a greater and more decisive fight with poverty. Studying more deeply leads to a deeper understanding of the process, and over the course of time. It provides a compelling picture of poverty. Among these measures, the conflict between the object and the mind, or more modernly, the quantitative and qualitative attitudes toward achieving poverty eradication efforts. In recent years this struggle has shifted in favor of a qualitative attitude and emphasis on socio-cultural indicators. The spread of the phenomenon of poverty, especially in the suburbs of Ardebil, is the major problem of the city, which has increased in recent years with rural migration and the incorporation of rural textures into the city limits and the expansion of suburbanization. Given that the nature and dimensions of the power created in the Ardebil blocs are not only a necessity for an inequality, but also are a necessity based on human values, Therefore, in this study, 21 social indices were extracted from the statistical blocks of 2006 and 2016, and by applying these indices to Arc GIS environment, the poverty and inequality situation in Ardabil city was investigated.

Key words: Urban poverty, social indicators, spatial statistics, GIS, Ardabil city


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 09 October 2021
  • Receive Date: 20 December 2020
  • Revise Date: 12 September 2021
  • Accept Date: 09 October 2021
  • First Publish Date: 09 October 2021